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Chapter 12

NUTR 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Iron-Deficiency Anemia, Superoxide Dismutase, Thyroid


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 1010
Professor
Alkhoury
Chapter
12

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Chapter 12
Hemoglobin: an iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds oxygen and transports it thro0ugh the
blood to cells
Heme iron: absorbed form of iron found in animal products that’s chemically associated with proteins such as
hemoglobin and myoglobin
Myoglobin: iron-containing protein in muscle cells that binds oxygen
Nonheme iron: poorly absorbed form of iron found in both plants and animals foods that`s not part of the iron
complex found in hemoglobin and myoglobin
Ferritin: major iron storage protein
Transferrin: iron transport protein in blood
Transferrin receptor: protein found in cell membranes that binds to the iron-transferrin complex and allows it
to be taken up by cells
Hemosiderin: insoluble iron storage compound that stores iron when the amount of iron in the body exceeds
the storage capacity of ferritin
Iron deficiency anemia: iron deficiency disease that occurs when the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is
decreased cause there`s insufficient iron to make hemoglobin
Pica: ingestion of non-food substances such as clay, laundry starch
Hemochromatosis: inherited condition that results in increased iron absorption
Metallothionein: proteins that bind minerals, one such protein binds zinc and copper in intestinal cells,
limiting their absorption into blood
Superoxide dismutase: enzyme that protects the cell from oxidative damage by neutralizing superoxide free
radicals, one form of the enzyme requires zinc and copper for activity and another from requires manganese
Ceruloplasmin: major cooper carrying protein in blood
Selenoproteins: proteins that contain selenium as a structural component of their amino acids
Gultathione peroxidase: selenium containing enzyme that protects cells from oxidative damage by neutralizing peroxides
Keshan disease: type of heart disease that occurs in areas of china where the soils is very low in selenium, caused by a viral
infection
Thyroid- stimulating hormone: hormone that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones form the thyroid
gland
Goiter: enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a deficiency of iodine
Cretinism: poor maternal iodine intake during pregnancy that causes stunted growth and poor mental development in infants
Goitrogens: substances that interfere with the utilization of iodine or the function of the thyroid gland
Fluorosis: condition caused by chronic overconsumption of fluoride, by black and brown stains and cracking and pitting of
teeth
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