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NUTR 1010 (27)
Chapter 1-6

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University of Guelph
NUTR 1010
Lise Smedmor

Chapter 1Nutritition Food for Health11NUTRITION AND THE CANADIAN DIETNutrition a science that studies the interactions that occur between living organisms and foodNutrients chemical substances in food that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processesFoodProvide nutrients and energy which are needed to help keep us alive and healthy to support growth and to allow reproductionFastpaced lifestyles and food choices made available through technology contributes to a diet that contains too muchlittle of the nutrients we needTHE MODERN CANADIAN FOOD SUPPLYIn order to get enough food to eat people needed to spend most of their day obtaining ingredients and preparing mealsModern Canadian food supplyincludes an endless assortment of eating optionsFood choices for centuries fresh fruits and vegetables meats and grainsNewer additions frozen vegetables canned soups packaged meats frozen prepared meals and snack foodsProcessed foods foods that have been specially treated or changed from their natural stateAbout onequarter of Canadians eat food prepared in a fastfood restaurantLead to overeatingShifted from providing enough nutrients to meet peoples needs to limiting overconsumptionExcess intake increases the risk of obesity and chronic diseases heart disease hypertension and diabetesHOW HEALTHY IS THE CANADIAN DIETNot as healthy as it could beNutritious foods are divided into four major groupsVegetables and fruitsGrain productsMilk and alternativesMeat and alternativesCanadian Community Health Survey CCHS this is a comprehensive survey of healthrelated issues including the eating habits of 35000 Canadians that was begun in 2000 and continues to collect data annually Results includeMany Canadians are not consuming as many vegetables fruits milk and alternatives and grain products as they shouldHalf of adult Canadians do not consume even 5 servings of vegetables per day recommendations for adults are 710 servings per dayTwothirds of Canadians over age 30 do not consume the recommended servings of milk and alternativesConsume fewer grains bread cereals pasta and rice than recommendedOnly for meat and alternative group were the percentage of Canadians consuming below recommended levels relatively lowBetween 1718 of adults aged 1970 consume higher recommended levels of fatoFigure 12boHighfat food choices include pizza hamburgers hot dogs cookies donuts and muffinsoHighsugar foodssoft drinks etcoHigh portion comes from snack foodsoCCHS found that Canadians werent making the best choicesUnhealthy dietary pattern and lack of physical activity increases risk of developing obesity and chronic diseases such as heart disease and stroke diabetes and certain types of canceroMajor causes of death among CanadiansNutritionRelationship between diet and disease and how to make wise food choiceHealthy diet provides the right amounts of energy Each nutrients we need to understandoHow our bodies obtain nutrients from foodoWhich are essentialoHow much we need to getoWhich food provide healthy sources of nutrientsoRecognize which information to believe12FOOD PROVIDES NUTRIENTSEssential nutrients nutrients that must be provided in the diet because the body either cannot make them or cannot make them in sufficient quantities to satisfy its needsApproximately 45 nutrients have been determined to be essential to human lifeEx our bodies cannot synthesize vitamin C but we need it to stay healthy If not added back to the diet the deficiency will eventually be fatal Determined by our food choicesFortified foods food to which one or more nutrients have been added typically to replace nutrient losses during processing or to prevent known inadequacies in the Canadian dietWhite flour breakfast cereals milk orange juice infant formula and plantbased beverages such as soy rice and almond milk Amount of added nutrients is regulatedNatural health products natural health products are a category of products regulated by Health CanadaIt includes vitamin and mineral supplement amino acids fatty acids probiotics herbal remedies and homeopathic and other traditional medicines Occupy a middle ground between food and drugsCCHS estimates 40 of Canadians use vitamin and mineral supplements Food contains substances that are needed by the body but are not essential in the dietEx Lecithin is substance found in egg yolks that is needed for nerve functionNot considered essential but can be manufactured in the body in adequate amountsPhytochemicals substances found in plant foods phyto means plant that are not essential nutrients but may have healthpromoting properties Ex phytochemical found in broccoli called sulforaphaneNot considered essential but may help reduce risk of cancerZoochemicals substances found in animal foods zoo means animal that are not essential nutrients but may have healthpromoting propertiesEx certain fatty acids found in fish oilsNot essential as they can synthesized in the body but can reduce risk of death from cardiovascular diseaseCLASSES OF NUTRIENTSChemically there are 6 classes of nutrients carbohydrates lipids proteins water vitamins and mineralsGrouped in a variety of waysoWhether they provide energy to the bodyoHow much is needed in the dietoChemical structureEnergyyielding nutrients nutrients that can metabolize to provide energy in the bodyCarbohydrates lipids and proteinsMeasured in kilocalories Macronutrients nutrients needed by the body in large amounts Water and the energyyielding nutrients carbohydrates lipids and proteinsRequirements are measured in kilograms kg or grams gMicronutrients nutrients needed by the body in small amountsVitamins and mineralsRequirements are measured in milligrams mg or micrograms gOrganic molecules those containing carbon bonded to hydrogenCarbohydrates lipids proteins and vitaminsInorganic molecules those containing no carbonhydrogen bonds
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