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Chapter 1-6

Chapter 1-6 summaries.docx

Course Code
NUTR 1010
Lise Smedmor

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Chapter 1-Nutritition: Food for Health
Nutrition: a science that studies the interactions that occur between living organisms and food.
Nutrients: chemical substances in food that provide energy and structure and help regulate body
Provide nutrients and energy, which are needed to help keep us alive and healthy, to
support growth, and to allow reproduction.
Fast-paced lifestyles and food choices made available through technology contributes to a
diet that contains too much/little of the nutrients we need
In order to get enough food to eat people needed to spend most of their day obtaining
ingredients and preparing meals
Modern Canadian food supply: includes an endless assortment of eating options
Food choices for centuries- fresh fruits and vegetables, meats, and grains.
Newer additions- frozen vegetables, canned soups, packaged meats, frozen prepared
meals, and snack foods.
Processed foods: foods that have been specially treated or changed from their natural state.
About one-quarter of Canadians eat food prepared in a fast-food restaurant
Lead to overeating
Shifted from providing enough nutrients to meet people’s needs to limiting
Excess intake increases the risk of obesity and chronic diseases (heart disease,
hypertension, and diabetes)
Not as healthy as it could be
Nutritious foods are divided into four major groups:
Vegetables and fruits
Grain products
Milk and alternatives
Meat and alternatives
Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS): this is a comprehensive survey of health-
related issues, including the eating habits of 35,000 Canadians, that was begun in 2000 and
continues to collect data annually. Results include:
Many Canadians are not consuming as many vegetables, fruits, milk and alternatives, and
grain products as they should.

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Half of adult Canadians do not consume even 5 servings of vegetables per day;
recommendations for adults are 7-10 servings per day.
Two-thirds of Canadians over age 30 do not consume the recommended servings of milk
and alternatives
Consume fewer grains (bread, cereals, pasta, and rice) than recommended
Only for meat and alternative group were the percentage of Canadians consuming below
recommended levels relatively low
Between 17%-18% of adults (aged 19-70) consume higher recommended levels of fat
oFigure 1.2b
oHigh-fat food choices include pizza, hamburgers, hot dogs, cookies, donuts, and
oHigh-sugar foods-soft drinks, etc
oHigh portion comes from snack foods
oCCHS found that Canadians weren’t making the best choices
Unhealthy dietary pattern and lack of physical activity increases risk of developing
obesity and chronic diseases such as heart disease and stroke, diabetes, and certain types
of cancer.
oMajor causes of death among Canadians
Relationship between diet and disease and how to make wise food choice
Healthy diet provides the right amounts of energy
Each nutrients we need to understand:
oHow our bodies obtain nutrients from food
oWhich are essential
oHow much we need to get
oWhich food provide healthy sources of nutrients
oRecognize which information to believe
Essential nutrients: nutrients that must be provided in the diet because the body either cannot
make them or cannot make them in sufficient quantities to satisfy its needs.
Approximately 45 nutrients have been determined to be essential to human life
Ex: our bodies cannot synthesize vitamin C, but we need it to stay healthy. If not added
back to the diet, the deficiency will eventually be fatal.
Determined by our food choices
Fortified foods: food to which one or more nutrients have been added, typically to replace
nutrient losses during processing or to prevent known inadequacies in the Canadian diet
White flour, breakfast cereals, milk, orange juice, infant formula, and plant-based
beverages such as soy, rice, and almond milk.
Amount of added nutrients is regulated

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Natural health products: natural health products are a category of products regulated by Health
It includes vitamin and mineral supplement, amino acids, fatty acids, probiotics, herbal
remedies, and homeopathic and other traditional medicines.
Occupy a middle ground between food and drugs
CCHS estimates 40% of Canadians use vitamin and mineral supplements
Food contains substances that are needed by the body but are not essential in the diet
Ex: Lecithin is substance found in egg yolks that is needed for nerve function
Not considered essential but can be manufactured in the body in adequate amounts
Phytochemicals: substances found in plant foods (phyto means plant) that are not essential
nutrients but may have health-promoting properties.
Ex: phytochemical found in broccoli called sulforaphane.
Not considered essential but may help reduce risk of cancer
Zoochemicals: substances found in animal foods (zoo means animal) that are not essential
nutrients but may have health-promoting properties.
Ex: certain fatty acids found in fish oils
Not essential as they can synthesized in the body, but can reduce risk of death from
cardiovascular disease
Chemically, there are 6 classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water,
vitamins, and minerals.
Grouped in a variety of ways:
oWhether they provide energy to the body
oHow much is needed in the diet
oChemical structure
Energy-yielding nutrients: nutrients that can metabolize to provide energy in the body
Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
Measured in kilocalories
Macronutrients: nutrients needed by the body in large amounts.
Water and the energy-yielding nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins)
Requirements are measured in kilograms (kg) or grams (g)
Micronutrients: nutrients needed by the body in small amounts
Vitamins and minerals
Requirements are measured in milligrams (mg) or micrograms ( g)μ
Organic molecules: those containing carbon bonded to hydrogen
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitamins
Inorganic molecules: those containing no carbon-hydrogen bonds
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