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Chapter 5

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Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 2050
Professor
Jess Haines
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5: Nutrition during Pregnancy: Conditions and Interventions Obesity and Pregnancy: -increased risk of these disorders is associated with unfavourable metabolic changes: -increased blood glucose, high C-reactive protein levels, increased blood concentration, insulin resistance, increased blood pressure, high blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, low levels of HDL -obesity correlates with visceral fat-which is fat that lies beneath the skin and muscles---decreases disease because it is more metabolically active -chronic inflammation, free radical generation, and oxidative stress Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: -affect 6-8% of pregnancies, remain unknown and are no cures oxidative stress: a condition that occurs in the endothelium when it is exposed to a surplus of oxidizing agents relative to its supply of antioxidants endothelium: the layer of cells lining the inside of blood vessels -they both cause increase in blood clot, plaque formation, and impaired blood flow Chronic Hypertension: -present before pregnancy-before 20 weeks of pregnancy -greater than 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic -numbers over 160/110 either or both—increased in fetal death, fetal growth retardation, and preterm delivery -can be affected from the amount of sodium intake Gestational Hypertension: -diagnosed after 20 weeks -have neither elevated serum insulin or proteinuria -women with this disorder are at greater risk for hypertension and strokes -tend to be overweight, obese, or have excess fat -if their blood pressure remains elevated during pregnancy it is considered to be chronic hypertension Preeclampsia-Eclampsia: -in women with hypertension and proteinuria before 20 weeks of pregnancy -a syndrome which includes: -oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction -blood vessel spasms and constriction -increased blood pressure and alterations to blood volume and pressure -immune system response to the placenta -reduced/alterations of calcium hormone -platelet aggregation and blood coagulation by prostacyclin(blood pressure reducer) and thromboxane (increases blood pressure by constricting blood vessels) **mainly affects the placenta, and the mothers kidney, liver, and brain -originates from abnormal implantation and vascularization of the placenta and poor blood flow through the placenta -insulin resistance contributes to some of the negative consequences observed **cure is delivery of the baby Risk factors for preeclamsia: -first pregnancy, obese, underweight, insulin resistance, over 35, renal disease, African Americans, high blood levels, inadequate diet Nutrient Intake and Preeclampsia: -vitamin C- 200mg -vitamin E-400 IU st -calcium (1000-2000g ), calcium supplements, and omega-3 FA(after 1 trimester do not influence) -5 or more servings of F&V -no restriction of sodium -3 regular meals, and snacks daily -consume low glycemic index rather than high CHO -moderate exercise -weight gain that flows recommendation Diabetes in Pregnancy: -gestational diabetes(CHO intolerance with ons
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