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NUTR 2050 (77)
Chapter 12

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NUTR 2050
Jess Haines

Chapter 12 Child and preadolescent nutrition  This chapter focuses on the growth and development of school age and preadolescent children. This period in a child’s life is preparation for the physical and emotional demands of the adolescent growth spurt.  Definitions of lifestage cycle o Middle childhood- ages 5-10 o Preadolescence- 9-11 for girls, 10 to 12 for boys  Differences among ethnicities o Prevalence of overweight children looking at BMI is significantly higher for Hispanic males. Black female children also have a higher BMI than Hispanic and white girls. African Americans have higher percentages of total calories from dietary fat.  Average annual growth during the school years is 7 pounds in weight and 2.5 inches in height  CDC Growth Charts United States o Cover weight for age, stature for age, and body mass index  During early childhood years body fat percentage reaches minimum of 16 for females and 13 for males.  It is important to realized that BMI is not constant throughout childhood, because height it component of the formula and is always changing  Male children can not increase muscle mass until middle adolescence  During childhood the child masters the use of eating utensils, can be involved in simple food preparation and can be assigned chores related to mealtime such as setting the table.  Eating behaviors at this stage heavily influenced by parents and siblings, having family mealtime is very important and avoiding excessive reprimanding and arguments is crucial  Media influence is also a concern Saturday morning cartoons were recorded showing 49% of advertisements as food and 91% of those foods being unhealthy for children  Energy allowances based on body weight are lower for school age children than for toddlers and preschoolers  0.95 grams of protein per kg body weight is recommended for this age group  Common nutrition problems o Iron deficiency, not a common problem in middle school age but is for toddlers o Dental caries, the amount of time that children’s teeth are exposed to carbohydrates influences the risk of dental caries or tooth decay. Sticky carbohydrates such as raisins and gummy worms are strong caries promoters.  Prevalence of obesity in 2007-2008 19.6% of school children were obese from the ages 6-11 having BMI’s greater than the 95 percentile  Overweight children are usually taller, have advanced bone ages and experience sexual maturity at earlier age  BMI rebound is the normal increase in body mass index that occurs after BMI declines and reaches it’s lowest point around the age of 4. The period of BMI rebound ma
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