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NUTR 2050 (77)
Chapter 14

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NUTR 2050
Jess Haines

CHAPTER 14 Adolescent nutritionINTRODUCTION adolescence is defined as the period of life between 11 and 21 years of agetime of biological emotional social and cognitive changes during which a child develops into an adultphysical emotional and cognitive maturity is accomplished during adolescence tasks experienced during adolescence include development of a personal identity and a unique value system separate from parents and pther family members a struggle for personal independence as well as the need for economic and emotional family supprt and adjustment to a new body that has changed in shape size and psychological capacityNUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN A TIME OF CHANGEdramatic physical growth and development experienced by adolescents significantly increases their need for energy protein vitamins and minerals struggle for independence leads to development of health compromising eating behaviours such as excessive dieting meal skipping use of unconventional nutritional and nonnutritional supplements and adoption of fad dietsNORMAL PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTpubery the physical transformation of a child into a young adultchanges include sexual maturation increases in height and weight accumulation of skeletal mass and changes in body compositionage of onset duration and tempo of these events vary a great deal between and within individualsSexual Maturation Rating SMR aka tanner stages is a scale of secondary sexual characteristics that allow health professionals to asses the degree of pubertal maturation among adolescentsSee table 141 pg 358 for sexual maturity rating for girls and boys First signs of puberty are development of breast buds and sparse fine pubic hair occurring on average between 8 to 13 years of ageMenarche occurs 2 to 4 years after development of breast buds and pubic hairAverage age of menarche is 124 years but it can occur as early as 9 or 10 or as late as 17 years of ageMenarche may be delayed in highly competitive athletes of girls who severely restrict their caloric intake to limit body fat Enlargement of the testes and change in scrotal coloring are most often first signs of puberty among males occurring between ages 105 and 145 years with 116 being the most average ageTesticular enlargement begins between ages of 95 and 135 years in males
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