Textbook Notes (363,420)
Canada (158,366)
Nutrition (113)
NUTR 2050 (75)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Nutrition Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Guelph
NUTR 2050
Jess Haines

Chapter 9 Nutrition Textbook Notes Infant Nutrition ConditionsInterventionsInfants who are born preterm or who are sick early in life require nutritional assessment and interventions to meet their nutritional needs for growth and developmentEarly nutrition services and other interventions can improve longterm health and growth among infants born with a variety of conditionsThe number of infants requiring specialized nutrition and health care is increasing due to the improved survival rates of small and sick newborns Children with Special Health Care Needs A federal category of services for infants children and adolescents with or at risk for physical or developmental disability or with a chronic medical condition caused by or associated with geneticmetabolic disorders birth defects prematurity trauma infection or perinatal exposure to drugsInfants at RiskInfants born before 34 weeks of gestation have higher nutritional risksInfants born with consequences of abnormal development during pregnancy such as infants born with heart malformations as a result of the heart not forming correctly or exposure to toxinsInfants at risk for chronic health problemsEnergy and Nutrient Needs Nutrient requirements for infants with health conditions are based on the recommendations for healthy infantsSpecific nutrients may be adjusted higher or lower based on the health condition involvedEnergy NeedsFor infants with special health care requirements RDA may not be appropriate since they are based on the needs of generally healthy infants DRI are used instead so that estimated energy requirements EER and adequate intakes AI can be considered as appropriate to the circumstancesFor infants with special care needs their calorie requirements may be the same less or more that the DRI for infants 570kcaldayCaloric needs of sick infants can be estimated with measurements such as indirect calorimetry measurement of energy requirements based on oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide releaseInfants who are born preterm at less than 34 weeks of gestation particularly need higher energy intakes An infant born with Down Syndrome or with repaired spina bifida needs fewer calories than the DRI of 108kcalkg body weightProtein RequirementsProtein requirements of infants with special health care needs may be higher lower or the same as other infantProtein requirements based on the DRI of 152 grams of protein per kg body weight are recommended if the condition does not affect growth or digestionProtein recommendations are sufficient if total calories are high enough to meet energy needsWhen total caloric intake is low proteinrich foods become an energy sourceProtein recommendations lower than the DRI are unusual in infancyDown Syndrome is a disease that requires less proteinFat RequirementsInfants need a highfat diet compared to older people because fats provide energyUp to 55 of calories from fats may be recommendedThe need for calories provided by fats is especially important in sick or recovering infantsLowfat diets are generally not recommended for infants MCT oil can be added to ensure calories from fats are available Vitamins and MineralsDRIs for vitamins and minerals are appropriate for many infants with health conditions because recommendations are set with a safety marginVitamin and mineral requirements are affected by various health conditions particularly those involving digestion
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