Textbook Notes (368,629)
Canada (162,027)
Nutrition (115)
NUTR 2050 (77)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Nutrition Textbook Notes.docx

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NUTR 2050
Jess Haines

Chapter 8 Nutrition Textbook Notes Infant Nutrition The dynamic growth experienced in infancy is the most rapid of any age Inadequate nutrition in infancy however leads to consequences that may be lifelong harming both future growth and future developmentProgression in feeding skills expresses important developmental steps in infancy that signal growth and nutritional statusNutrient requirements of term newborns have to be modified for preterm infants Knowing the needs of newborn infants who are ill or smaller than normal results in greater understanding of the complex nutritional needs of all newborns and infantsChanging feeding practices such as the care of infants outside the home and the early introduction foods markedly affects nutritional status of infants This chapter covers fullterm infants born at 37 weeks of gestation or later and healthy preterm infants born at 34 weeks or laterAssessing Newborn HealthBirth Weight as an OutcomeThe weight of a newborn is a key measure of health status during pregnancyThe average gestation for a fullterm infant is 40 weeks with a range of 3742 weeks Infants with normal birth weights are less likely to require intensive care and are usually healthy in the long runPreterm births regardless of birth weight are those 37 weeks or less Infant MortalityPreterm birth is a key risk factor for infant death since it is continuing to increaseThe 3 leading causes of infant mortality in 2006 were congenital malformations complications relating to preterm births and sudden infant death syndromeThe higher incidence of infant mortality low birth weight and preterm births in African Americans is particularly concerning Combating Infant Mortality Improved access to specialized care for mothers and infants has been credited in part for a decline in the infant mortality rateThe emphasis on prevention is seen in various programsThe Early Periodic Screening Detection and Treatment Program EPSDT is a major source of preventive and routine care for infants in lowincome familiesStandard Newborn Growth AssessmentIndicators include birth weight length and head circumference for gestational agethInfants above the 90 percentile are considered large for gestational age LGAthInfants below the 10 percentile are considered small for gestational age SGAThose inbetween are appropriate for gestational age AGAInfant DevelopmentNewborn reflexes are protective for themThese reflexes are replaced by purposeful movements during the first few months of lifeRooting Reflex Action that occurs if one cheek is touched resulting in the infants head turning toward that cheek and the infant opening its mouthSuckle A reflexive movement of the tongue moving forward and backward earliest feeding skill Motor DevelopmentThe development of muscle control is topdownmeaning head control is the start and last comes lower legs Muscle development is also from central to peripheralmeaning the infant to control the shoulder and arm muscles before muscles in the handsThe development of motor skills slowly increases caloric needs of infants over time because increased activity requires more energyInfants who crawl expend more calories in physical activity than do younger infants who cannot roll over
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