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Chapter 9

NUTR 2050 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Preterm Birth, Cell Migration, Growth Chart


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 2050
Professor
Simone Holligan
Chapter
9

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Chapter 9: Infant Nutrition – conditions and interventions
Growth
Growth in infancy is usually a reassuring sign that sufficient energy and nutrients
are provided. However there is no concensus on one of the best growth chat for
infants recovering from preterm birth and ilnness and variations provides the use
of different growth tracking systems. Thus, they are difficult to use for a sick and
recovering infant because such infants are smaller in proportion and their
medical problems vary too much. One useful tool is growth velocity tracking – the
incremental gains such as weight, length and head circumference. These reflect
those that are sick and preterm and every infant everywhere in the world.
The first goal of nutritional care is to maintain growth for age and gender despite
whatever health problems are present. Later this approach may be modified if
there is a growth pattern that is typical for a specific condition that is identified in
the first year of life. A steady accretion of weight or height is a sign of adequate
growth even if the gains are not at the typical rate. Plaeteaus in weight or height
or weight gain followed by weight loss are signs of inadequate.
Sometimes slow growth is a symptom of an underlying conditions rather than a
sign of adequate nutrition. Refinements in the usual methods and interpretation
of growth are needed in conditions known to influence growth and development
including:
using growth charts for specific diagnoses and guidelines
looking for biochemical indicators of tissue stores of nutrients
noting the indicators of the body composition and body fat measurement
special attention to the indicators of brain growth
treatment guidelines or protocols for goal outcomes
considering medications that change weight gain, appetite or body
composition
Growth in Preterm Infants
CDC provides one definition of low birthweight categories that is used in vital
statistic reports, but there are many under definitions used by specialists in
neonatal care units and in development pediatrics. The following concepts impact
how growth is assessed regardless of which specific growth chart is being used,
these include:
the body composition of infants that are born preterm are not the same as
fullterm because they have missed part of the third trimester where fat is
added rapidly.
Treatment of the infants medical conditions may affect growth
expectations
Development outcomes later in life are more of a focus than the physical
growth tracking in the long term.
The head circumference is the main indicator for a healthy recovery
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