Chapter 2.doc

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10 Apr 2012
Chapter 2 - Preconception Nutrition
Infertile: biological inability to bear children
Infecund: Biological inability to bear children after 1 year of unprotected intercourse
30-50% of conceptions are lost by resorption into the uterine wall within the first 6 weeks after conception
9% are lost by miscarriage in first 20 weeks of pregnancy
Miscarriage causes: severe defect in fetus, maternal infection, structural abnormalities of the uterus, endocrine, immunological
Endocrine: A system of ductless glands such as the thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes that produce secretion that affects body
Immunological: having to do with immune systems and its functions in protecting the body from bacterial, viral, fungal or other
Sub-fertility: reduced level of fertility characterized by unusually long time to concieve or repeated early pregnancy losses
Puberty: The period of life during which humans become biologically capable of reproduction
Ova: Eggs of female produced and stored in ovaries
Prostaglandis: substances that cause the uterus to contract and release the blood and nutrients stored in the uterine wall
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): can lead to scarring and blockage of the fallopian tubes
Endometriosis: presence of endometrial tissue in abnormal locations. It’s quite painful
Nutrition effects:
1) altering the environment in which eggs and sperm develop
2) modifying levels of hormones involved in reproductive processes
Chronic Undernutrition: birth of small frail infants with likelihood of death in first year of life
Acute undernutrition: dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does
Excessive and inadequate levels of body fat are related to declines in fertility in women and men
In obese people: increased levels of oxidative stress and exposure of eggs and sperm to oxidative damage are related to infertility
Anovulatory Cycles: menstruation with ovulation
Amenorrhea: Absence of menstrual cycle
Reduced weight shows improvements in hormone levels
Antioxidants are said to help fertility by protecting the reproductive cells including eggs and sperm from oxidative stress
Lower zinc levels have shown lower sperm quality in men
Folate has shown to reduce infertility in women
Iron has shown to promote healthy ovulation
Iron deficiency during pregnancy has lead to preterm birth
Alcohol may effect fertility by decreasing estrogen and testosterone levels
Drinking in early pregnancy is related to impairment of development of fetus
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