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NUTR 2050 (77)
Chapter 3

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NUTR 2050
Simone Holligan

Chapter 3Preconception NutritionMagnesium Calcium Vitamin D and Vitamin B Supplements and PMS Symptoms6MagnesiumoSupplements of 200mg per day given during 2 cycles are shown to decrease swelling breast tenderness and abdominal bloating in PMSo200 mg daily dose of Mg is below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL 350mg daily is considered safeCalcium and Vitamin DoCalcium supplements of 1200mg per day for 3 cycles found to reduce PMS symptoms of irritability depression anxiety headaches and cramps by 48oWomen with PMS found to have lower blood levels of Vitamin D and CalciumoRisk of developing PMS 40 lower in women with average Vitamin D intakes of 706 IU 177 mcgday compared to women consuming 112 IU 28 mcgoDaily Calcium intakes of 1238 mg were related to 30 risk reduction compared to women consuming 529 mgoUL for Vitamin D for women is 50 mcg 2000 IU and 2500 mg for CalciumVitamin B6oInvolved in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin that are related to development of PMSoGenerally concluded that pharmacological doses of Vitamin B in range of 50100mg day reduce severity of 6premenstrual depressive symptoms in some womenoSometimes used in clinical practice to diminish PMS symptomsoUL for Vitamin B is 100mgday6Obesity and FertilityRates of reproductive health problems related to excess body fat are increasing in the US and other countries along with rising rates of obesityAmong 2039 year olds in US 233 of men and 27 of women are obese2Prevalence of severe obesity assessed as BMIs of 40kgm or higher weights that are 100 pounds higher than normal has increased around 5Men who are obese are at risk of infertility due to low levels of testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin SHBGoProtein that binds with the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen Proteins become inactive when bound to SHBG but are available for use when neededObesity in women increase risk of infertility due to hig
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