Chapter 9.docx

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10 Apr 2012
Chapter 9 - Infant Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions
Children with Special Health Care Needs:
Federal category of services for infants, children and adolescents with or at risk for; physical or developmental disability, or with
a chronic medical condition caused by or associated with genetic/metabolic disorders, birth defects, prematurity, trauma,
infection or prenatal exposure to drugs.
Low Birth Weight Infant (LBW)
An infant weight below 5lbs 8oz at birth
Very Low-Birth weight Infant (VLBW)
An infant weighing 3lbs at birth
Extremely Low-Birth Weight Infant (ELBW)
An infant weighing 2lbs at birth
Neonatal Death
Death that occurs in the period from the day of birth through the first 28 days of life
Prenatal Death
Death occurring at or 20 weeks of gestation and through the 28 days of life
Down syndrome
Condition in which three copies of chromosome 21 occur, resulting in lower muscle strength, intelligence and greater risks of
being over weight
Condition in which electrical nerve transmission in the brain is disrupted, resulting in period of loss of function that varies in
Indirect Calorimentry
Measurement of energy requirements based on oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release
MCT oil
Liquid form of dietary fat used to boost calories; composed of medium chain triglycerides
Catch-Up Growth
Period of time shortly after a slow growth period when rate of weight and height gains is likely to be faster than expected for age
and gender
Condition in which body pools of calcium are un balanced, and low level are measured in blood as a part of a generalized
reaction to illness
Infants at Risk:
o U.S. infant mortality rate decreased 45% between 1980 & 2006
o The health care system has been more successful at saving ill infants than in preventing preterm birth, low birth weight, or
chronic conditions
o The number of infants requiring nutritional services is increasing in large measures because of advances in neonatal intensive
o Outcomes of infants who survive preterm birth include 60% rate of disability for those with extremely low birth weights and
31% rate of disability for those with very low birth weights
o In depth nutrition assessment make sure nutrition is not limiting an infant’s growth and development. Assessments are needed by
3 main groups of infants;
o Infants born before 34 weeks of gestation, preterm infants are born at less than 37 weeks of gestation, but generally only
those born before 34 weeks of gestation have higher nutritional risks
o Infants born with consequences of abnormal development during pregnancy, such as infant s born with heart
malformations as a result of the heart not forming correctly or exposure to toxins during gestation; exposure to alcohol
during gestation may interfere with brain formation and result in permanent changes in brain function, this second
category includes infants with genetic syndromes such as “downs syndrome”
o Infants at risk for chronic health problems, risks may come from treatment needed to save their lives, or from the home
environment that the baby enters; examples of conditions that increase risks are seizures, or cocaine with drawl
symptoms, long-term later consequences such as later learning problems may not be known for years
Energy and Nutrient Needs:
o Nutrient requirements for infants with brain conditions are based in the recommendations for health infants
o Specific nutrient may be adjusted higher or lower based on the health condition involved
o Nutrient requirements are not known for every condition and individuals respond at their own pace of growth and development,
so many nutrient recommendations are based on the best judgement under the circumstances
Energy Needs;
o RDA may not be appropriate, since they are based on the health for generally healthy infants
o DRI are used inside so that the estimated energy requirements (EER) and adequate intakes (AI) can be considered as appropriate
to the circumstances
o Caloric intake may be same, less or more than the DRI for infants (570 kcal/day)
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