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Chapter 1

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NUTR 2050
Simone Holligan

Chapter 1 Nutrition Through the Life CycleIntroductionNutrition is a interdisciplinary science focused on the study of nutrients and other constituents and healthNutrients chemical substances in foods that are used by the body for growth and healthPrinciples of the Science of NutritionLook at table 11 on PG 2Principle 1 Food is a basic need for humans People need enough food to liveThe right assortment of food for optimal healthPeople with enough food food securityFood security access at all times to a sufficient supply of safe nutritious foodsFood insecurity limited or uncertain availability of safe nutritious foods or the ability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways12 of US households are food insecurePrinciple 2 Foods provide energy calories nutrients and other substances needed for growth and health1 reason why people eat the requirement of calories energy nutrients and other substances supplied by foods for growth and healthCalories a unit of measure of the amount of energy supplied by food Known as kilocalories kcal or large caloriesCalories are unit not a substanceNutrientschemical substances variety of functions that support growth tissue maintenance and repair for ongoing health6 categories of nutrients look at table 12 for details1Carbohydrates2Proteins 3Fats lipids4Vitamins5Minerals6WaterEssential and Nonessential NutrientsEssential Nutrients substances required for growth and health that cannot be produced or produced in sufficient amounts by the body They must be obtained from the dietEssential required in the dietEssential NutrientsCarbohydratesCertain Amino Acids Essential amino acidsphenylalanine valinetryptophan isoleucine methionine leucine lysine andhistidinethreonine Linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid essential fatty acidsVitaminsMinerals WaterEssential Amino Acidsamino acids cannot be synthesized in adequate amounts by humans and therefore must be obtained from the diet Also called indispensible amino acidsNonessential Nutrients nutrients required for growth and health that can be produced by the body from other components of the dietEx cholesterol creatine and glucoseDo not have to be apart of the dietSome play an important role for maintaining healthRequirements for Essential Nutrients All humans need the same set of nutrientsThe amount of nutrients varies based onAgeIllnessBody sizeLifestyle habitsGenderMedication UseGenetic TraitsPregnancy and lactationGrowthDietary Intake StandardsCannot take into account all of the factors that influence nutrient needsDo account for age gender growth and pregnancy and lactationIntake standards Dietary Reference Intake DRIsDRIs used for the nutrient intake standards for healthy peopleRecommended Dietary Allowances RDAs levels of essential nutrients intake judged to meet nutrient needs of all healthy people while decreasing the risk of chronic diseasesAdequate Intake AIs Tentative RDAs Less conclusive scientific info then RDAsEstimated Average Requirements EARsvalues that are estimated to meet requirements of half the healthy individual They assess adequacy of intakes of the populations groupsTolerable Upper Intake ULs upper limits of nutrient intake Represent total daily levels ofnutrients intake from food fortified foods and supplements that should not be exceededULs asses the safety of high intakes of nutrients particularlyfrom supplementsDRIs are levels of nutrients intake intended for use as a reference values for assessing diets for healthy peopleRDAsintake levels that meet nutrients needs over 98 EARs should not be used to examinethe possibility of inadequate intake in individuals and groupsStandards of Nutrient Intake for Nutrition Daily Values DVs scientifically a agreed upon standards for daily intakes of nutrients from the diet developed for use on nutrition labelsUsed to identify the amount of a nutrient provided in serving foodDVPercentages obtained from one serving of food productCarbohydratesUsed as a source of readily available energySimple sugars monosaccharides and disaccharidesComplex Carbohydrates polysaccharidesStarches plant form of stored carbsGlycogen animal forms of stored carbs Most types of Fiber Dietary sources of fiberAlcohol sugarsBasic carbs single molecules monosaccharidesGlucose blood sugar and dextroseFructose fruit sugarsGlactoseDisaccharides two monosaccharideSucrose glucose fructose ie Table sugarMaltose glucose glucose ie Malt sugarLactose glucose galactose ie Milk sugarComplex carbs 4 calories per gramLarge intestine digest some dietary fibers and excrete fatty acids used for energyThe main function of fiber is for bulk for normal eliminationHigh fiber diets reduce the rate of glucose absorptionHigh fiber may help prevent cardiovascular disease and some types of cancerXylitol mannitol and sorbitol forms of alcoholic sugarsSmall amounts are needed to sweeten beverages gums and yogurtAlcoholic sugars do not promote tooth decay
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