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Nutrition (113)
NUTR 2050 (75)
Chapter 16

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NUTR 2050
Simone Holligan

Chapter 16 Adult NutritionAdulthood is divided into 3 segmentsEarly adulthoodo20s Involves being independent leaving home starting a career relationshipso30s responsibilities to others building career caring for familyoMay be a renewed interest in nutrition for family healthMidlifeo40s active family responsibilities expanding work and professional roles reviewing accomplishments and recognizing ones moralityo50s sandwich generation multigenerational caregivers looking after children and parents and maintaining a career may be dealing with chronic diseases and preventative care Old age planning for retirement more leisure time for those with chronic diseases food and lifestyle choices are importantImportance of nutrition5 of the 10 leading causes of death cancer heart disease stroke diabetes hypertensionOnset and severity can be modified through nutrition and physical activities See table 161Health objectives for the nationIn the last decade rates of heart disease cancer and stroke death has declinedObesity and diabetes has increasedPrority for public health is obesityPhysiological changes during adulthoodStop growing by the 20sBone density devlopes until age 30Muscular strength peaks at 2530Physical activity has an impact on body composition including lean body mass fat accumulation and relocation and bone densityBy middle age there is a decline in size and mass of muscle and increase in body fatDexterity and flexibility declineHearing loss and vision changes become noticible by age 40The decline of estrogen production leads to menopause increase in abdominal fat and risk of cardiovascular disease accelerated losos of bone mass2064 are typically associated with positive energy balance with an increase in weight and adiposity and decrease of muscle mass Redistribution of fat is associated with risks of hypertension insulin resistance diabetes stroke gallbladder disease and coronary artery diseaseEnergy needsBased on an individuals basic metabolic rate BMR and the thermic effect of food TEF and activity thermogenesis energy expanded through exercise and non exercise activities The largest daily energy expenditure 6075 is the process of chemical activities that maintain the bodyCalorimetry is the measurement of the amount of heat given off or absorbed by a reaction or group of reactionsIndirect calorimetry is used to determine resting energy expenditure REE done by measure the exchange of gasses during respiration for a specific amount of time using a metabolic chartoThe respiratory quotient CO2O2 is used to estimate 24 hr energy expenditureoREE can also be calculated with the MifflinSt Jeor formula developed for healthy normal weight and moderately overweight men and womenMifflinStJeor Energy Estimation FormulaMales REE 10 X wt625 X ht5 X age5Females REE 10 X wt625 X ht5 X age161oAfter the value is determined it is multipled by an activity factor 12 seditary 155 moderately active 1725 very active to arrive at calorie expenditureApprox 15 calories per pound is required to maintain weightEnergy adjustments for weight changeTo loose a pound a week an adult would have to create a negative of 500 cals daily to reach 3500 calories a weekAge related changes in energy expenditureMetabolic rate and energy expenditure decline in early adulthood at 2 per decadeBtwn age 2565 physical working capacity declines by 510 per decadeCaloric intake decreases with ageFad Diets71of women and 42 of women are dieting at any timeWeight cycling or yoyo dieting is considered more harmful than persistent overweight Fad diets popular approaches to weight lossMost popular approaches are fat reduction calorie reduction and carb reduction
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