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Chapter 12

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NUTR 2050
Simone Holligan

Chapter 12Child and Preadolescent NutritionNUTR 2050 DEKey Points 1 Schoolage and preadolescent children continue to grow at a slow steady rate until the adolescent growth spurt 2 Monitoring BMIforage percentiles is important for screening for overweight or underweight 3 Family mealtimes should be encouraged as there is a positive relationship between families eating together and the overall quality of the childs diet 4 A childs food choices are being influenced by peers teachers coaches the media and the Internet 5 The prevalence of overweight and obesity continue to increase in the schoolage and preadolescent groups 6 Complications of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing7 Sedentary lifestyles and limited physical activity are contributing factors to the increase in childhood overweight 8 Schoolage and preadolescent children are encouraged to eat a variety of foods and increase physical activity as outlined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid 9 Consumption of sweetened soft drinks which increases as children get older is associated with increased calorie consumption and poorer diet quality 10 Schools play an important community role in promoting healthy nutrition and physical activity patterns for children and adolescents Introduction This period in a childs life is preparation for the physical and emotional demands of the adolescent growth spurt Family members teachers and other figures that model a healthy lifestyle will influence the childs choices and habits later in lifeDefinition of the Life Cycle StageMiddle childhood Children between the ages of 5 and 10 years also referred to as schoolagePreadolescence The stage of development immediately preceding adolescence 9 to 11 years of age for girls and 10 to 12 years of age for boysImportance of Nutrition Adequate nutrition and establishment of healthy eating behaviours helps children reach full potential for growth development and health as well as prevent health problems and promote healthy living Problems at this age can include irondeficiency anemia undernutrition and dental caries Prevalence of obesity and eating disorders and can be noticed this early in life Promoting healthy eating habits can reduce the risk of developing obesity type 2 diabetes andor cardiovascular disease Adequate nutrition and eating breakfast has been associated with improved academic performance Tracking Child and Preadolescent Health Child poverty rates are climbing In 2006 in the US approximately 8 of children were living in extreme poverty The environment in which a child lives affects the childs health status nutrition and education recommendations in childhood nutrition must always take the childs environment into consideration In 2006 117 of children younger than 18 years 87 million children did not have health insuranceHealthy People 2010 A document that includes objectives for childrens health and wellbeing Table 121 Normal Growth and Development At this age growth is steady but growth velocity is not as great as it was during infancy or as great as it will be in adolescence Average growth during the school years is 7lbs 335 kg in weight and 25 inches 6 cm in height Spurts do happen and coincide with increased appetite and intake and during periods of slower growth appetite and intake will decrease parents should not be concerned about fluctuating appetites Children should be weighed and measured for height regularly The 2000 CDC Growth Charts Tools for monitoring the growth of a child Cover weightforage statureforage and body mass index BMI for schoolaged boys and girlsBased on data from the second and third cycles of the National Health and Examination Survey NHES and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys NHANES I II and III Both surveys are AmericanIllustrations 121 and 122 Growth of a healthy child Growth over time is more important than any single measurementWHO Growth References World Health Organization WHO For older schoolage children and adolescents Heightforage weightforage BMIforageConstructed using existing historical dataPhysiological Development During middle childhood muscular strength motor coordination and stamina increase progressively Children can perform more complex pattern movements dance sports gymnasticsIn early childhood percent body fat reaches a minimum of 16 in females and 13 in males its increase called adiposity rebound or BMI rebound is in preparation for the adolescent growth spurt Increase inbody fat with puberty is earlier and greater in females 19 female vs 14 males In middle childhood boys have more lean body mass per centimeter of height than girls in adolescence this becomes more pronounced
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