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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Philosophy Summary Notes

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University of Guelph
PHIL 1050
Mark Mc Cullagh

Chapter 3 Ideas combinationsthe mathematics of thoughtsthth From 1517 century rhetoric the study of persuasive speech was practiced Aristotle had written on rhetoric and logic texts in the Renaissance increasingly gave their attention to that subject rather than to studies of valid argumentth The 17 century there occurred such a revolution in thought Brought into contrast 2 different ideals of reason on the other hand the ideal of certainty best exemplified by Euclids geometryAristotelian syllogistics on the other hand the ideal of rational belief w uncertainly exemplified in quantitative form by the laws of probabilitythe laws of natureth Except for Leibniz 17 century philosophers did not succeed in developing a better logical theory than Aristotlesth17 century did establish 2 important ideas about deductive reasoning1 The theory of deductive demonstration is part of psychology It should provide part of the laws of thought just as physics provides the laws of motion2 The laws of thought have an algebraic structure just as do the laws of arithmetic or the laws of motionthLater in mid 19 century this idea formed the basis for the first fundamental advance in logic since AristotleCOMBINATIONS According to both PlatoAristotle the objects of knowledge have a special formal structure One thing or kind or property is a finite combination of other things or kinds or propertiesHuman is a combination of rationalanimalThey differed about metaphysics For plato the elements of these combinations are ideal objects or forms For Aristotle they are essential attributes of concrete objects For either view any kind of property that can be the object of scientific knowledge can be analyzed into a combination of simple properties that cannot be further analyzedCombinations a mathematical study formed i
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