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Pg. 35-47 Chapter Notes

2 Pages

Course Code
PHIL 1050
Mark Mc Cullagh

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Pg 3547 AristotleGreek SciencePractical arts including metal productionmetal working sophisticated enough to make good hand tools weaponsarmor carpentry to make seagoing boats the principles of navigation methods of manufacturing thclothpaper methods of animal husbandry fishingpeasant agriculture was known in the 4 century before ChristAncient astronomy was most developed subject in the physical sciencesAncient astronomy was based on nakedeye observations of the positions of the starsAristotle developed a science of biology a theory of cosmology a theory of motiona theory of the constitution of mattermost importantly theory of how to conduct inquiry He provided answers to questions such as what is chance What is causality What is a demonstration What is proof Etc By AD Ptolemy had developed a theory of motion of the planets that was better than Aristotles Ptolemy also contributed to opticsArchimedes made more enduring contributions to physics than did Aristotleth Aristotles general conception of how science is to be conducted influenced western civilization until approx 18century Approx 2300 years Aristotles writings set the standards for scientific explanationfor deductive argumentsThe Platonic Conception of KnowledgePlatoAristotle shared a view about the logical structure of knowledgeFor Plato typical question is of the form what is x Here x might be some important moral characteristic eg virtue or courage etc or by some description of a kind of thing found in nature Eg human earth etcAny acceptable answer MUST give a combination of features shared by all things that are x and by no things that are not xHow are we to answer such questions Plato held that knowledge requires certaintyAn infallible method is one that never leads to a false conclusion Plato concluded that experience can never provide us w the kind of certainty that he required for knowledge therefore conclusions drawn from experience observeexperiment are NOT infallible Plato held that we
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