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Chapter 11

PHIL 2180 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Reward System

Course Code
PHIL 2180
Karyn Freedman

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Chapter 11: Naturalism and the Social Structure of Science
Science as a Process:
David Hull:
Wrote book called “Science as a Process” in 1988.
Hull states that science runs on a combination of cooperation and competition.
Believes that scientists operate under a reward program with the main accomplishment being
use; a scientist wants other scientists to use their work.
Believes that other people will take a critique approach to your work, so you do not have to.
Hull describes scientific change as an evolutionary process, through biology.
Kitcher and the Division of Scientific Labour:
Kitcher believes that the better research program should receive most resources, but some resources
should be used for the least promising research program as well.
Best reward system is to reward only the individuals who work on the research program that succeeds,
but we divide the reward equally among each member. This will cause people to not only choose the
popular research program, but to also move to the less used research program in order to gain more
reward if it becomes successful.
Strevens believes that Kitcher’s reward system is not the best as many people will choose the
overcrowded and most likely to succeed program in order to coast to an easy reward.
Strevens believe that the best reward system is one that rewards an individual depending on the
contribution he makes to the research program.
These rewards systems look at individual incentive in order to gain community-level success in
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