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Sample questions.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 2600
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Question 1
1 / 1 point
In order to enhance corporate accountability, corporate social activity, and performance should be made more visible to
those with a stake in the corporation. The term usually applied to this is
___transparency___
.
1 / 1 point
In his influential 1970 article, Milton Friedman protested against the notion of corporate responsibility for corporations.
Which of the following is not one of the three main premises of his argument?
Question options:
Social issues and problems are the proper province of the state rather than corporate managers.
It is managers' responsibility to act solely in the interests of shareholders.
Corporate responsibilities limit a corporation's freedom to choose how to pursue its main task of
increasing profits.
Only human beings have a moral responsibility for their actions.
View Feedback
1 / 1 point
Since the late 1980s, we have witnessed a growing tendency towards the ‘privatization’ of many political functions and
processes formerly assigned to governments. Which of the following are examples of how people’s lives are increasingly
controlled and shaped by corporations as well as governments? Please select all that apply.
Question options:
Globalization facilitates relocation and potentially makes companies able to engage governments in a
‘race to the bottom’.
Decisions over employment, lay-offs and relocation are taken by firms, and governments cannot
directly control employment levels (though they are made responsible for unemployment).
The privatization of major public services and publicly owned companies has led to private actors
dominating major industries such as media, telecommunications and transport.
Market and industrial liberalization and deregulation has increased the power of private actors: the
more strongly the market dominates economic life, the weaker governmental intervention and
influence is.
View Feedback
0 / 1 point
Crane and Matten contend that a corporation can be morally responsible for its actions, because it has agency
independent of its members. The main arguments in support of this point centre on a corporation’s internal decision
structure and corporate
___responsibility___
.
1 / 1 point
It is now generally accepted that business responsibility does extend beyond simply making a profit. Which of the following
do Crane and Matten list as business reasons for CSR? Please select all that apply.
Question options:
Socially responsible companies voluntarily solve the social and environmental problems their activities
have caused.
Socially responsible firms may find it easier to attract employees, who may be more committed.
Corporations seen as responsible may attract more and/or more loyal customers.
By engaging in voluntary CSR, corporations may avoid government legislation.
1 / 1 point
Kant's categorical imperative contains three parts. Maxim 3 states, "Act only so that the will through its maxims could
regard itself at the same time as universally lawgiving". What does this mean?
Question options:
Humans deserve respect as autonomous, rational actors and human dignity should never be ignored.
It is a test to check whether other rational actors would endorse our judgement of a certain situation.
It is a consistency test to check whether the principle underlying an action could be followed by
everyone.
The maxim celebrates the inherent subjectivity of our moral decisions.
View Feedback
1 / 1 point
De George (1999) suggests two extremes in locating a place for ethical theory. What are these two extremes?
Question options:
Normative / instrumental
Moral / immoral
Absolutism / relativism
Religious / non-religious
View Feedback
1 / 1 point
According to Crane and Matten, postmodern ethics recommends the following way of deciding what is right and wrong in a
given situation:
Question options:
None of these options is correct.
The best way for deciding between right and wrong is for individuals to enter into discussion with
others to generate situational norms.
Individuals should always follow the morals of their local communities.
Individuals should follow their emotions, inner convictions and gut feelings.
View Feedback
0 / 1 point
According to John Rawls, justice is achieved when certain tests are met. What are they? Please select all that apply.
Question options:
Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they benefit the least advantaged the
most. Crane and Matten list this as test 2a.
Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged to ensure the greatest good for the greatest
number of people whilst ensuring liberty for all.
Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of basic liberties compatible
with a similar system of liberty for all. Crane and Matten list this as test 1.
Inequalities are to be arranged so that they are attached to offices and positions open to all under
conditions of fair equality of opportunity. Crane and Matten list this as test 2b.

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Description
1 / 1 point Question 1 In order to enhance corporate accountability, corporate social activity, and performance should be made more visible to  those with a stake in the corporation. The term usually applied to this is ___transparency___ . 1 / 1 point In his influential 1970 article, Milton Friedman protested against the notion of corporate responsibility for corporations.  Which of the following is not one of the three main premises of his argument? Question options: Social issues and problems are the proper province of the state rather than corporate managers. It is managers' responsibility to act solely in the interests of shareholders. Corporate responsibilities limit a corporation's freedom to choose how to pursue its main task of  increasing profits. Only human beings have a moral responsibility for their actions. View Feedback 1 / 1 point Since the late 1980s, we have witnessed a growing tendency towards the ‘privatization’ of many political functions and  processes formerly assigned to governments. Which of the following are examples of how people’s lives are increasingly  controlled and shaped by corporations as well as governments? Please select all that apply. Question options: Globalization facilitates relocation and potentially makes companies able to engage governments in a  ‘race to the bottom’. Decisions over employment, lay­offs and relocation are taken by firms, and governments cannot  directly control employment levels (though they are made responsible for unemployment). The privatization of major public services and publicly owned companies has led to private actors  dominating major industries such as media, telecommunications and transport. Market and industrial liberalization and deregulation has increased the power of private actors: the  more strongly the market dominates economic life, the weaker governmental intervention and  influence is. View Feedback 0 / 1 point Crane and Matten contend that a corporation can be morally responsible for its actions, because it has agency  independent of its members. The main arguments in support of this point centre on a corporation’s internal decision  structure and corporate ___responsibility___ . 1 / 1 point It is now generally accepted that business responsibility does extend beyond simply making a profit. Which of the following  do Crane and Matten list as business reasons for CSR? Please select all that apply. Question options: Socially responsible companies voluntarily solve the social and environmental problems their activities  have caused. Socially responsible firms may find it easier to attract employees, who may be more committed. Corporations seen as responsible may attract more and/or more loyal customers. By engaging in voluntary CSR, corporations may avoid government legislation. 1 / 1 point Kant's categorical imperative contains three parts. Maxim 3 states, "Act only so that the will through its maxims could  regard itself at the same time as universally lawgiving". What does this mean? Question options: Humans deserve respect as autonomous, rational actors and human dignity should never be ignored. It is a test to check whether other rational actors would endorse our judgement of a certain situation. It is a consistency test to check whether the principle underlying an action could be followed by  everyone. The maxim celebrates the inherent subjectivity of our moral decisions. View Feedback 1 / 1 point De George (1999) suggests two extremes in locating a place for ethical theory. What are these two extremes? Question options: Normative / instrumental Moral / immoral Absolutism / relativism Religious / non­religious View Feedback 1 / 1 point According to Crane and Matten, postmodern ethics recommends the following way of deciding what is right and wrong in a  given situation: Question options: None of these options is correct. The best way for deciding between right and wrong is for individuals to enter into discussion with  others to generate situational norms. Individuals should always follow the morals of their local communities. Individuals should follow their emotions, inner convictions and gut feelings. View Feedback 0 / 1 point According to John Rawls, justice is achieved when certain tests are met. What are they? Please select all that apply. Question options: Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they benefit the least advantaged the  most.  Crane and Matten list this as test 2a. Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged to ensure the greatest good for the greatest  number of people whilst ensuring liberty for all. Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of basic liberties compatible  with a similar system of liberty for all. Crane and Matten list this as test 1. Inequalities are to be arranged so that they are attached to offices and positions open to all under  conditions of fair equality of opportunity.  Crane and Matten list this as test 2b. View Feedback 1 / 1 point Match the major normative theories of business ethics with the rules they employ. __2__ Utilitarianism 1. Self­interest __4__ Rights and justice 2. Act or rule utility __3__ Ethics of duties 3. Categorical imperative __1__ Egoism 4. Respect for human beings View Feedback 1 / 1 point Which of the following is not one of the factors that Crane and Matten identify as the most important in deciding whether a  situation should be assigned a moral status? Question options: The decision is likely to have significant effects on others. The decision is likely to be open to legal challenges. The decision is likely to be characterized by choice, in that alternative courses of action are open. The decision is perceived as ethically relevant by one or more parties. View Feedback 0 / 1 point Match each of the following explanations of cognitive moral development with one of the stages identified by Kohlberg  (1969). Individuals are concerned with  Social contract and individual  their own immediate interests  __1__ rights 1. and define right according to  Social accord and system  whether there is fairness in  __3__ exchange or deals they make. maintenance Interpersonal accord,  2. Individuals live up to what is expected of them by their  __2__ conformity and mutual  immediate peers and those close to them. expectations 3. Individuals’ consideration of the expectations of others  Instrumental purpose and  broadens to social agreement more generally. __4__ exchange 4. Individuals assess right and wrong according to the  upholding of basic rights, values and contracts of society. View Feedback 1 / 1 point Hofstede (1980, 1994) suggests that differences in cultural knowledge and beliefs across countries can be explained in  terms of five dimensions. Read the following description carefully and indicate which of Hofstede's five dimensions it  describes: "The extent to which an emphasis is placed on valuing money and things versus valuing people and relationships." Question options: Uncertainty avoidance Individualism/collectivism Masculinity/femininity Power distance View Feedback 1 / 1 point Werhane (1998) sees moral imagination as the creativity with which an individual is able to reflect about an ethical  dilemma. Why is this significant? Question options: It allows the individual to prioritise ethical issues more easily. It allows the individual to develop alternative solutions. It allows the individual to better rank the importance of stakeholders. It helps the individual move towards a post­conventional level of cognitive moral development. View Feedback 1 / 1 point The bureaucratic dimension of organizations has been argued to have negative effects on ethical decision­making. Read  the following carefully and indicate which is not one of these negative effects. Question options: Instrumental morality Denial of responsibility Denial of moral status Suppression of moral autonomy 1 / 1 point Crane and Matten identify four main types of ethical codes. Read the following carefully and choose which of the following  is not one of these four main types. Question options: Professional codes of ethics (e.g., marketing). Industry codes of ethics (e.g., financial services industry). Organizational codes of ethics (code for a single organization). Accreditation codes of ethics (e.g. use of the Fairtrade mark). View Feedback 1 / 1 point Crane and Matten identify two very different models of informal ethics management. Is the following statement true or  false? 'In the culture change approach, the leader's role is one of participation and empowerment in order to foster moral  imagination and autonomy on the part of employees. On the other hand, in the cultural learning approach, the leader's role  is to articulate and personify the values and standards to which the organization aspires, and to then inspire and motivate  employees to follow their lead.' Question options: True False View Feedback 1 / 1 point Which of the following is a scheme to tackle the specific aspect of reporting assurance in social accounting? Question options: ISO 26000 SA 8000 AA 1000S ISO 14001 View Feedback 1 / 1 point Crane and Matten define business ethics management as follows: ‘Business ethics management is the ___direct___ attempt to formally or informally manage ethical issues or problems through specific policies, practices, and programmes.’ 1 / 1 point Risk analysis and management is one of the key components of business ethics management. According to Sison (2000),  this is because the language of risk assessment has encouraged firms to spell out the risks that firms run by ignoring  ethics, in terms of...? Question options: Potential reputational damage. Possible monetary impact. Likelihood of punitive governmental regulations. The firm's ability to attract and retain the best staff. View Feedback Ballwieser and Clemm (1999) identify five main problematic aspects of the financial intermediary's job. Which of the  following is not one of them? Question options: Conflict of interest. Ratings are frequently unreliable. The size of the financial intermediary firms threaten standards. Long­term relationships with clients can threaten independence. View Feedback 1 / 1 point Socially responsible investment is the use of ethical, social, and environmental criteria in the selection and ___management___ of investment portfolios, generally consisting of company shares. 1 / 1 point According to Shankman (1999), two features make agency relations special. One of these is the inherent conflict of interest  between shareholders and managers. What is the other? Question options: Short­term focus of the ownership goals. Limited communication between owners and managers. Large differences in defined rights and obligations. Informational asymmetry between principal and agent. View Feedback 1 / 1 point Please complete the following definition (two missing words): ‘ ___corporate governance___ describes the process by which shareholders seek to ensure that “their” corporation is run according to their intentions. It  includes processes of goal definition, supervision, control, and sanctioning.’ 1 / 1 point Read the following statements carefully and indicate which of them Crane and Matten identify as being among the most  serious issues (from an ethical perspective) in the globalization of financial markets. Please select all that apply. Question options: Deterritorialized financial markets impose the problem that no national government is entitled to govern  these markets. Globalized financial markets price many developing country citizens out of their own financial markets,  by allowing foreign investors to purchase shares at inflated prices. The volume of trade in the financial sector unleashed by financial market liberalization threatens to  overwhelm other kinds of economic activity. As globalized financial markets are not fully controlled by national governments, they can easily be  used for transactions that would be illegal in most countries. Which of the following do Crane and Matten not provide as an example of an issue associated with an employee's duty to  respect their employer's property? Question options: Working time Unauthorized use of company resources for private purposes Whistleblowing Embezzlement View Feedback 1 / 1 point There is often a gap between HRM policies and the reality they can sometimes represent. ‘Translate’ the following terms: Management can do  1. __4__ Teamworking what it wants __2__ Empowerment Making someone else take the risk and  2. responsibility __1__ Flexibility Recognizing the contribution of the  Undermining the trade union and collective  __3__ 3. bargaining individual 4. Reducing the individual’s discretion View Feedback 0 / 1 point Imagine a retailer introduces a programme aimed at making sure employees smile and appear happy in front of customers.  This is an example of which of the four kinds of threat to privacy that Simms (1994) suggests we might want to protect?  Choose the best fit. Question options: Physical privacy Social privacy Informational privacy Psychological privacy View Feedback 1 / 1 point According to Kaler (1999), the two main areas to which an employee's right to participation extends are operational  participation and a right to association. True or false? Question options: True False View Feedback
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