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Canada (158,372)
POLS 2080 (26)
Adam Sneyd (20)
Chapter 1

Chapter One Summary

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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 2080
Adam Sneyd

POLS*2080: Chapter One  Labelling plays two key roles: o They make existing practices appear legitimate o They shape the future of policy making  Newly industrialized countries o Used to be called “underdeveloped” or “third world” o China, India, Singapore, etc. o Referred to as an “emerging market” o Determined by four criteria:  Manufactured goods contributing to 30% of GDP  Manufactured goods as 50% of exports  A shift in employment from agriculture to industry  Per capita income of $2000 o Just because the World Bank calls them developing countries doesn’t mean they’re necessarily making progress  Fourth World o Can denote the poorest of the poor states –failed states are bad for human well-being o Can also refer to colonized aboriginal people Growth  Development has usually been likened to economic growth  Global inequality is seen to be the reason of a long period of different growth rates (Sachs)  When the GDP grows rapidly it’s usually due to natural resources or industrialization o When countries reach a slowed –middle class –GDP it means they’ve reached a level of industrialization  There is a general assumption that a trickle down will take place when a country’s growth increases  Development for all countries was to mimic the development of the west  An issue with GDP/capita is that it relies on a government to collect the info o Tells us very little about the extent of poverty, etc.  Development can’t only be GDP growth because of the fact that wealth rarely trickles down; the country will appear to be “developed” but isn’t actually Inequality  Distribution of income –refers to income inequality o A measure of how the wealth of a country is distributed among the population o Looks at where the wealth is centralized, what is the wealth gap, etc.  You can measure the distribution of income in two ways: o Comparison of income earned by different strata of the population o The Gini Coefficient (0 is a perfect score and means everything is equally distributed)  Generally minorities within a population suffer from the most inequality  Social capital: refers to the extent to which individuals are willing to co-operate in the pursuit of shared goals and is thought to be essential to the development of civic and democratic culture  There are three predominant explanations for poverty in developing countries: o Colonial rule: the rule was based on inequality, exploitation, and slavery o Characteristics of late industrialization: use of technology to limit workers o Inadequate social safety nets: or a bad tax system that doesn’t spread the wealth properly  Absolute poverty o Being below the minimum level of income required for basic survival ($1.25/day)  Moderate poverty o Basic needs are met and survival is not threatened ($2/day)  Relative poverty o You’re able to maintain your physical survival but you’re excluded from your society o This could be not having a computer or cellphone, not being able to partake in sports, etc. o Generally what exists is developed countries  Poverty is not solely about money; it is also about social, political, and psychological factors o Therefore ending poverty requires a lot more than an influx of economic aid o This school of thought came about in the 1960s –“multi-dimensional” o Seers believed in six dimensions  Adequate money to cover survival needs  Employment  Improvement in the distribution of income  Education (specifically literacy)  Free political participation  National autonomy (no colonialism or coercion) o Goulet  Life sustenance  Self-esteem  Freedom  Capabilities Approach –Amartya San o Development is both a rise economic growth and substantive freedoms o Believes that poverty is a series of “unfreedoms” o “Unfreedoms” can include limited access to healthcare, services, education, etc. o Lack of freedom can either be a process (systemic) or an opportunity (lack of food, etc.) o Poverty is cyclical –those who vote can obtain education, if you’re educated you can vote, etc. o See page 14 for Harlem/Bangladesh example Global Ethics and International Development  Western developed countries formed social supports because the free market left many vulnerable o While this was mostly based on morality it was also aided by the push to avoid a “communist revolt” by which people would support a communist movement to get more equality  The idea of social assistance extending past national borders happened when anti-colonial revolutions in Africa and Asia forced us to consider an international approach  Many influences to produce international aid: o Self-interest (loans, good PR move, etc.) o Geo-political consider
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