Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,367)
POLS 2080 (26)
Adam Sneyd (20)
Chapter 2

Chapter Two Summary

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2080
Professor
Adam Sneyd

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POLS*2080: Chapter Two Imperialism and the Colonial Experience  Global North and Global South are the new terms to discuss those countries which appear more “developed” and those which are “developing” or undeveloped. o Although not technically divided by the equator the global south refers to countries that were created (colonized) by European empires o There are exceptions to this rule such as the United States (which was once held by many European empires)  As the exploration of Asia developed there began to be more travel between the two spheres of the world (being Europe and the East) European Expansion and Conquest  Spain and Portugal had only been established after Christians seized the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim occupants (13 century) o This spurred Portugal to “explore” Northern Africa –where they found Ceuta “the flower of all other cities of Africa” o Ceuta had mass wealth because they could access many different trade routes for precious metals below the Sahara in the Northern Mediterranean o The expansion was therefore one of political, religious, and economic motives  When Spain and Portugal went to the Americas the other European countries quickly followed –they still maintained their colonies in Africa and Asia o It was harder to hold land in the Americas –they would gain it and quickly lose it  However their land in Africa and Asia only flourished and their investments there prospered and grew  The final push for Europe to colonize the rest of the world was one born in the Industrial Revolution –they were in search of new markets of both consumers and investments (this is the Hobson-Lenin thesis) o This was necessary because most of Europe still used perfectionist trade policies  Another focus says that there was both a political and economic push for the colonization of other areas o Caused by “the great power struggle” between the empires of Britain, France, and Germany o They had recently found diamonds and gold in Southern Africa th o This was also spurred on by a nationalist attitude which developed in the late 19 century  This begs the question of why Belgium and Portugal ended up with colonies as they were small and largely unimportant  None of the explanations mention the “men on the spot” who acted on their own (sometimes against their country’s official policy) to develop the empire further (called men on the spot because they were located in the country they acted in)  Most scholars accept an element of all three views as the reason for development  Imperialism –refers to the era of European expansion that began in the sixteenth century, when the European empires began trade in the Americas and Asia (except for Algeria and South Africa, Africa was largely left untouched until the last third of the 19 century, the period of high imperialism) o Came into use in the late 19 century as a description of when colonies were ruled by one central authority in the pursuit of economic gains  Neo-colonialism –the economies of formally independent countries remain subject to the control of others, often their former colonial rulers o Prior colonization of the country is not always necessary to develop neo-colonialism o An example of this could be the United States having large amounts of control over the Middle East  What separates a group of people moving and resettling from colonialism? o Colonialism involves some sort of development or expansion plot and involves the rule of a group of people over another people Rival Empires of Trade  When Europe moved into the east it was already being used as a trading port the way of the Indian Ocean  When Portugal arrived in South Asia in 1498, Europe soon moved in with Lisbon’s conquest of Goa in 1510  Dutch, English, French move in to take some claim over Indian Ocean o Dutch and English create chartered companies  A company that received monopoly commercial rights from a state ruler for the specific purpose of promoting trade and exploration in a geographic area. Served as an important aspect of European expansion o English East India Company –established in 1600, the precursor to the Hudson Bay Company (which was a chartered company in North America in 1670) o French also established chartered companies for their land in the east and west o Portuguese Crown maintained direct control over their eastern empire  The Dutch had the spice trade from South-east Asian islands (Malaysia and Indonesia)  Portugal had the west coast of South Asia  England focused control in India and South Asian coast (where they battled with the French for it)  The Mughal emperors favoured the competition because it gave them more leverage in negotiations for better prices and terms of trade (something they could not do when it was only Portugal in control) Development of the Western World  In Central and South America the domination and enslavement of the indigenous peoples caused a population collapse o This made the continuation of any existing political system nearly impossible –the institution of any political system would have to be “cut from a whole cloth”  The “unintended” introduction of smallpox destroyed the populations of Meso-America  The Spanish (in their quest for gold and silver) enslaved indigenous peoples for mining –working them to death  In Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) they almost caused extinction –had 1 million in 1492 but by 1550 there was nobody  In Mexico the Aztec population fell from 25 million (1518) to 1 million (1605)  Due to the prospect of high wealth and the lack of people in the Americas the immigration rate increased  The cultivation of sugar (and rum) became a staple in Brazil and the Caribbean Islands for the “triangular trade” with Europe and Africa  In the later 1600s the export of African slaves to the Americas began to provide labour for sugar, cotton, and tobacco th  Toward the end of the 17 century the import of black slaves outstripped the immigration of European settlers and the Americas became more dependent on slave labour  In South Asia the Europeans failed to dominate the native population: o They maintained their ability to keep equality in trade o They had sizeable armies with land dominance o They severely restricted the powers of Europeans o Very different than the Amerindians, whom the Europeans found uncivilized because of their communitarian cultures and non-sedentary lifestyles  Due to the many European nations angling for trading rights with the Indians they (Indians) were put at an advantage  Mughal power in the region began to fade at the turn of the 18 century o Many sub-states formed within the former empire o Britain and France formed alliances with different sub-states for further their positions
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