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POLS 2080 (26)
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Chapter Twenty One Summary

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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 2080
Adam Sneyd

ChapterTwenty One: Education and Development Education for Development: Competing Perspectives  There are two divergent views on the nature and purposes of education and its relationship to national and international strategies of development: o The Utilitarian Perspective o The Transformative Perspective  The Utilitarian Perspective: o Education is about transmitting knowledge and skills needed in the world of work, and to meet economic growth and national unity o Education is a competitive process for individual financial security and social promotion o Education is social investment that gives stability and continuity to the social system  The Transformative Perspective: o Education is about transforming society’s inequality and social injustice o Education must be a force for liberation, developing students’ critical views and skills that would make possible to generate progressive social change o Education as a counter-hegemonic force  The Utilitarian and Transformative views are intertwined in educational plans and programs throughout the developing world  Rhetorical references to education as a moral imperative for social change serve, however, to depoliticize the concept of educational change, thus reinforcing traditional development strategies The Era of Educational Consensus and Expansion  Since the 1950s, education has expanded in developing countries based on the belief that there is a linkage between higher levels of formal education and development o This was furthered by the linkages between high levels of schooling and the jobs connected to the schooling, such as law, medicine, etc.  Much of this expansion was made possible by government financial support  Educational expansion provided legitimacy to the national state Educational Crisis and the Erosion of Consensual Discourse  Since the 1980s, governments’ capacity to support education declined due to SAPs o This practically caused a reversal in elementary school enrolment  Educational costs were transferred to poorer local communities and parents  Official discourse focused on internal (dropout rates) and external efficiency (disconnect between education and occupational prospects) o People blamed this on weak internal efficiency in the school system however it was soon attributed to the weak external efficiency of the state  Today’s criticisms of education include: o questions about the quality of education  They focused on the memorization of facts instead of actually imparting knowledge o questions about the relevance of education o questions about teachers’ competence  The end result has been to present education as less of a public than a private good, thus fostering its privatization The Jomtien Conference and the Vision of Education for All  Educational crisis prompted a shift towards a utilitarian
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