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Chapter 3

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Political Science
POLS 2250
Nanita Mohan

Chapter 3- Public Administration Theory: The Humanistic Response Organizational Theory • Also know as human relations school, it’s based in social psychology • Organizational humanists focus on what actually happens in the factory • Respect for workers as complex human beings with diverse sets of needs • Distrust of simple, one dimensional theories of motivation • Recognition that the informal organization can be as instrumental as the formal one in setting work rules • Frederick Taylor focused on what should happen in the factory to maximize production • They found that there was an informal system that’s characterized by a network of friendships, workplace banter, informal sanctions that occur in every work setting • Taylor’s emphasis on scientific principles to set the working pace and financial incentives to improve productivity is misplaced Mary Parker Follet • She rejected the conventional use of raw power in organizations • Focuses on two related concepts: circular response and integration • Rejected the biological concept of unidirectional stimulus -relationships are inappropriate • Emphasis on shared integration • Circular response: people interact with one another in ways that influence both parties • Integrations: the need to combine diverse elements into a useful whole • Conflict would inevitably develop in any organization because of the existence of circular response and informal organization • The process of change that generates conflict also provides opportunity for changes to resolve the conflict • Emphasized the significance of executives exercising leadership rather than wielding power -it’s better to motivate employees by appealing to their higher instincts rather than threats Roethlisbeyer & Dickson and the Hawthorne Experiment • Idea behind the experiment was to test the impact of different levels of lighting on employee productivity • The experiment assumed that improving physical working conditions by increasing levels of lighting would improve productivity • Outcome: poor experimental design and inconclusive results • More experiments followed the Hawthorne experiment, trying to change physical conditions in the workplace • Hawthorne or sympathetic observer effect: -idea that workers given special attention will experience an increase in morale leading to greater productivity Chester Barnard & the Importance of Cooperation • Landmark work “The Functions of the Executive” • An organization is a cooperative system held together by a good communication system AND by the continuing desire of individual members to see the organizations thrive • Members of organizations make contributions to it, only when they receive adequate inducements • Essence of good management is maintaining a balance between contributions and inducements • Barnard thought inducements of loyalty, good working conditions, pride are most effective • It’s the responsibility of the executive to establish good communication systems • It was the responsibility of management to use the idea of cooperation to harness the informal system to benefit the organization Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • People are motivated by a hierarchy of five categories: 1. Physiological: food, shelter, clothing, sex, sleep 2. Safety: security, stability, freedom from fear 3. Belongingness & love: friendship, love, membership in some community 4. Esteem : achievement, competence, independence, prestige, status 5. Self actualization: self fulfillment, attaining ultimate goals in life • Maslow states “there is no ‘one best way’ to motivate employees” • Maslow’s theory is the basis for most participative management philosophy Douglas McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y Theory X Theory Y • Some managers simply do not trust • Other managers hold a more or respect their employees optimistic view of their subordinates • Employees dislike work and will • Employees see work as being make every attempt to avoid it natural as rest or play • Employees must be cajoled or • Employees willingly perform work if threatened to get them to work committed to the objectives • Employees will shrink • Employees can learn to take on responsibilities and must be told and even seek responsibility what to do • The capacity to solve • Most workers seek security above organizational problems is widely all and display little ambition dispersed • If managers convey the impression that they believe their employees are Theory X workers, then the workers will meet these expectations -the same applies to Theory Y workers Criticisms of Organizations and Humanism • The human relations concept is a method to manipulate employees to behave in the interests of management • The cooperation treasured by the organizational humanists is elusive • How does management convince workers to behave in the best interest of management rather than in their own best interest • Where conflicts arise between the individual and the organization, managers are admonished to resort to their hierarchical authority • The human relations approach is too employee centered Participatory Management • Tension would be controlled and directed but not totally eliminated by allowing workers a real decision making role in the workplace • Peter Drucker argued that the characteristics that Weber saw as such powerful engines of efficiency – bureaucracy and hierarchical structures – were powerful forces for misdirection • Decker thought that large organization managers and employees become too involved in their own specialty • The problem is the inability to focus on the overall organizational goal Organizational Development • Based on the idea that all organizations tend to become rigid while the environment around it changes • The purpose of the organizational development is to locate barriers to change and to show the organization how to engage in planned, goal oriented change -rather than directionless evolution or radical evolution • All organizations have a history that creates an organizational culture -drag: when the history has a negative influence • Patterns that create a drag are merely symptoms of more serious underlying problems in the organization’s culture • There’s a general three phased approach: 1. Unfreezing: identifying current dysfunctional behaviour and helping “unlearn” it 2. Moving/Changing: improvements needed are identified and implemented 3. Refreezing: refreezing the organization with its new behaviour Total Quality Management • W. EdwardsDeming • Statistical process control was used to improve production quality
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