Interactions between and within government agencies and departments constitute an important part of
activities within the executive sphere of government. This chapter will evaluate the horizontal process of
which policy matters are passed, the evolution of central agencies and line agencies, and will cover other
avenues like department ministers, deputy ministers and ministerial assistants.
Virtually all policy issues cut across the department boundaries, many also cut across governmental
and national boundaries.
Horizontal arrangements issues of central mandate to the government are handled in this
manor. Senior officials meet regularly to discuss interdepartmental matters. An example of this
would be health officials checking with social service departments to make sure that they have
funding and full support from areas like the treasury board. Horizontal management is often the
only way and the best way to get results.
Can be viewed as having four departments; 1. Initial mobilization of teams and networks
Necessary for addressing the policy challenge. Requires all parties to hold leadership
and initiative. Demands a connection of common culture amongst the team members.
2. “Shared Framework” articulate the goals of the initiative and do so in a manner that
respects the views of all parties. Addresses accountability. Clear hierarchical structures
are in place and provide the structure necessary for completing the task.
3. “Building supportive structures” underpin the effort at horizontal management. Informal
structures are used to facilitate discussion among various departments and interests
outside of governments. Ad hoc, or exploratory committees are set up quickly to examine
an emerging issue without necessarily making a commitment to any further activity.
Formal structures form. Joint decisions making committees make the decision, have a
chair, and co chair, and are briefed through committees.
4. “Maintaining Momentum” Finding a leader or champion’ that will bring leadership and
drive to spark the project and inspire others to continue with the effort.
Effectiveness of Horizontal Management the cost and time to operate this style on
management is excessive. Other problems can occur on other levels, over the appropriate action
that should be taken. However with the downsides to this comes great success, there have been
many successful projects and tasks, without this comes no public authority or direction to solve
problems and tasks.
Departments and Central Agencies: Coordination and development as well as the allocation of human and financial resources for
departmental programs led to considerable tension in relations between the agencies and line
Too much emphasis was being put on the process of policy formulation as compared to policy
content. Several reforms were made to make simpler hierarchal model of cabinet government. Thes