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Canada (162,105)
POLS 2250 (94)
Chapter 18

Chapter 18

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLS 2250
Professor
Nanita Mohan
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 18 – “Representative Bureaucracy and Employment Equity” Representative Bureaucracy • Acomplete definition has been interpreted in a variety of ways • Governments would accept the following sentiments as the foundation for their efforts in this area: that a public service that is representative of the larger society will be responsive to the needs and interests of the public and will thus be more responsible which is based on these propositions: 1. If the values of the public service as a whole are similar to the total population, the public service will make the kinds of decisions the public would make 2. Values of the public servants are molded by the pattern of socialization they experience before entering; social patterns include – education, social class, occupational background, race, family and group associations 3. Values rising from this socialization will not be modified by prolonged exposure to bureaucratic values 4. Values arising will be reflected in the behaviour of public servants and therefore in recommendations and decisions 5. Thus, the various groups in the population should be represented in the public service in approx. demographic proportion so that public servants will be responsive to the interests of these groups both in policy development and in program delivery - Critics say representative bureaucracy theory is vulnerable; • Insufficient for the public service as a whole to be broadly representative of the whole population • Apublic servant with certain social and educational origins will not necessarily share the values of those outside with similar origins • the process of socialization continues after entry of the public service in the form of re- socialization to the values of the service as a whole • Generally, it is possible to have a representative public service that is not responsive and a responsive public service that is not representative The Representativeness of the Canadian Bureaucracy • Data indicated that the service is not a microcosm of Canadian Society • It is not the policy of the federal government to establish the exact demographic representation of all groups in society rather their aim is to achieve a more proportionate representation of a limited number of politically significant but underrepresented groups • Prime motivation to represent these groups is to make the public service more responsive in both the provision of policy advise and the delivery of services • Assumption that representativeness will promote responsiveness is central to the theory of representative bureaucracy • Representation has a symbolic impact that helps promote quiescence and stability in the political system • Statutes, regulations and administrative units designed to increase representation evoke symbols of equality and upward mobility • Group members appointed provide as role models for other members of their group • Government actions have brought around a more representative public service • Not visible to attempt to represent all the myriad groups • Future government actions will be directed primarily at underrepresented groups that become politically influential Equal Opportunity and Employment Equity - Issues of representative bureaucracy and equal opportunity are closely linked: attainment of a representative public service depends on the extent of various groups in society having equal access to employment in the public service - Federal, provincial and municipal governments have developed programs to promote equal opportunity - Federal is seeking to improve those opportunities of underrepresented groups (women, disabled, aboriginals) - Francophone’s are treated as part of the government’s efforts to ensure equitable participation of the two official languages - 1983 government announced its continued commitment to a bureaucracy that is representative of and responsive of the people it serves - Affirmative action program: comprehensive systems based approach to the identifications and elimination of discrimination in employment - Employment equity programs are protected under the Canadian charter of rights and freedoms - Section 15 “equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination” - Preferential treatment for groups that have historically been disadvantaged does not constitute reverse discrimination - Public Service EmploymentAct (1992) – views employment equity programs as a “policy or program established by the Treasury Board to improve employment and career opportunities in the public service for groups of people that are disadvantaged, and to correct their conditions of disadvantage experienced by such groups in their employment - had to identify systematic barriers to equitable participation and adopt special measures to remedy imbalances in the public service workforce and meet numerical objectives for the representation and distribution of the designated groups - Systematic barriers: an employment policy, practice, procedure, or system that excludes, or has negative effects on, the designated groups -1991 Treasury Board announced a new approach to setting employment equity targets on the basis of rate of recruitment, promotions and separation – not just on representation - “workplace should be conducive to attracting and retaining designated group members and that they should receive a fair share of opportunities” - Federal government, Treasury Board secretariat and the Public Service Commission have played leading roles in developing, implementing and monitoring employment equity programs - Employment equity programs can be grouped into 3 categories: 1. Training and development 2. New or modified administrative units and practices 3. Vagarious recruitment - promotes representativeness and fairness in the public service - Ongoing effort in government to sensitize public service managers to the importance of removing obstacles to equal access to public service employment - have been complaints from public service and unions that equal opportunity programs violate the merit principle and discriminate against candidates outside the designated groups for appointment and promotion - Public service commission has responded with the merit is a dynamic principle, application is considered with other factors (fairness, equity and the economy) - Has been successful which is seen by the representation efforts in the next 5 groups Representation of Francophone’s • barriers to equal opportunity for French-speaking people exist in both the government and in the francophone community • before the 1918 Civil ServiceAct they were numerically represented well in the public service • Not represented as well as theAnglophones at the senior level • many of the francophone appointments rested on patronage - 1918 act emphasised merit and efficiency • after 1918 public service was pervaded byAnglophone linguistics and cultural bias • merit and efficiency were linked to formal education and technical qualifications - bilingual was not considered an component • recruitment and promotion methods reflectedAnglophone values and there educational system • these factors reduced the motivation of francophone’s to seek or retain positions in the federal public service • From the 1960’s on, strategies were implemented to gain Francophone participation with the R
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