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Chapter 3

POLS2250 CHAPTER 3

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLS 2250
Professor
Tim Mau
Semester
Winter

Description
POLS*2250 Chapter 3: PublicAdministration and Organization Theory: The Humanistic Response This new view took more notice of informal structures and the need for greater flexibility and autonomy in the workplace. The humanist perspective the employee constituted a complex individual who could achieve a high level of productivity with the application of the appropriate motivation. Innovative behaviour Organizational Humanism The organizational humanists focused on what actually happened on the factory floor. The informal system was categorized by the network of friendships, workplace banter and informal sanctions that occur in every work setting. Mary Parker Follett Circular response means no one unilaterally acts on someone else; rather people interact with out another in ways that influence both parties. Integration referred to the need to combine diverse elements into a useful whole. It was however, the particular genius of Follett’s contribution that she recognized and held fast to the nation that the process of change that generates conflict also provides the opportunity for the further changes necessary to resolve that conflict. She frequently emphasized the significance of executives exercising leadership rather than wielding power. Roethlisberger and Dickson and the Hawthorne Experiments This led experimenters to focus on the Hawthorne or sympathetic observer effect – the idea that workers given special attention will experience an increase in morale, which will lead to greater productivity. Chester Barnard and the Importance of Cooperation His crucial ideal was that an organization is a cooperative system held together by a good communication system and by the continuing desire of individual members to see the organization thrive. Members of the organization continue to make contributions to it, but only when they receive adequate inducements to encourage them to continue to do so. The essence of good management is maintaining a balance between these two. The inducements offered to workers could be in the form of monetary rewards, but Bernard felt that other forms of inducement such as loyalty, good working conditions, and pride in both the work and the organization were probably more efficient. He felt that workers were rather docile, uninspired creatures who depended on leadership to accomplish anything. It was the responsibility of the executive to establish good communication systems that would in turn instil the appropriate company spirit in employees. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs The five levels in the hierarchy of needs are as follows: 1. Physiological – food, shelter, clothing, sex, and sleep 2. Safety – security, stability, freedom from fear 3. Belongingness and love – friendship, love, membership in some community 4. Esteem – achievement, competence, independence, prestige, status 5. Self-actualization – self-fulfilment, attaining ultimate goals in life Instead, management must be sensitive to the fact that workers have a variety of needs beyond the simple need for money. Some of the concepts are poorly defined. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Attitudes of individual managers Theory X – depicts people as seeking to do as little work as possible and who must be threatened and closely supervised to ensure that they will do the necessary work. Theory Y – claims that work is a natural activity and that employees will be quite productive if given the opportunity to reach their potential. Difficult to test empirically Summary: • Respect for workers as complex human beings with diverse sets of needs • Distrust of simple, one-dimensional the theories of motivation • Recognition that the informal organization can be as instrumental as the formal one in setting work rules Criticisms of Organizational Humanism The most significant are based on the idea that the presumed community of interest between workers and management does not exist. It is obviously in management’s interest to extract as much work as possible from employees. This is the profit motive; however, it is in the employees interest to restrict their output to what they can do in physical comfort. In the end, therefore, the human relations approach to management proves to be simply another technique for managerial control. The human relations approach was also criticized from the opposite perspective by production- conscious managers. They were concerned that this school was too employee-centred. Participatory Management The participatory theories held that the tension could be controlled and directed, but probably not totally eliminated, by allowing workers a real decision-making role in the workplace. The problem is the inability to focus on the overall organizational goal; the solution is a more participatory form of management that would allow managers to have a braoder view of the organization and a clearer understanding of its overall goals. Organization Development Organizational development (OD) is based on the idea that all organizations tend to become rigid or “frozen”. While the organization remains rigid, the environment around the organization changes and this has serious consequences. The purpose of OD is to locate the barriers to change and to show the organization how to engage in planned, goal directed change and not directionless evolution or radical revolution. The unfreezing stage involves identifying current dysfunctional behaviour and helping the organization to “unlearn” that behaviour. In the second phase, the improvments needed are identified and implemented. The third stage involves refreezing the organization with its new behaviour in place so that the organization does not unconsciously revert to the old behaviour. Total Quality Management W. Edwards Deming – before WWII with the development of statistical process control (SPC) This involved using various statistical techniques to identify and correct deviations from the idea quality production standard. The guiding principle for TQM is “Get it right the first time” The basic tenet of TQM is eliminating quality control as a separate function, and instead making every employee responsible for quality and giving each role in designing production processes to ensure maximum quality. One method of establishing TQM in the public sector focuses on three basic princples: 1. Working with suppliers to ensure that the supplies utilized in the work processes are designed for your use 2. Continuous employee analysis of work processes to improve their functioning and reduce process variation 3. Close communication with customers to identify and understand what they want and how they define quality Criticisms of the Participative Approach One of the criticisms frequently levelled at the participative approaches is that the require a huge commitment of resources on the part of the organization. The obvious
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