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POLS 2250 (94)
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PoliticalAdministration2250.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLS 2250
Professor
Nanita Mohan
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1What is Public Administration The work of public administration in Canada was once largely limited to public servants and their political superiors producing a villagelike setting in which roles and expectations were clear and certain and issues were handled without elaborate rules and proceduresTechnology and more aggressive media now make public servants much more open to the public Despite this disruptions and changes public servants remain centrally involved in public administrationImportance and meaning of public Administration Since the beginning of World War II there has been an expansion in the activities of Canadian governments Responsibilities in federal provincial and municipal have grown Range of Governmental activitiesTraditional functions of administration justiceConduct of external relationsDefence of the countryHealth careEnvironmental protectionScientific research Federal public servants control and inspectAir trafficProtect coastal waterways against pollution and overfishingGuard prisoners in penitentiaries and rehabilitate offendersProtect our health and safety by inspecting food water air and medicineIssue millions of cheques to seniors and needy CanadiansHelp unemployed Canadians find jobsSupport science and technologyThe delivery of foreign aid Two major areas of government activities areProvision of ServicesEnforcement of regulationso Provision of Services includeDelivery of mailMaintenance of roads and highwaysAdministration of grants and loans o Regulatory functions includePrevention of unsafe workplacesSupport of Canadian cultureEnforcement of fair housing and employment regulations Today even though many political leaders aspire to limit the size of the public sector governments involve themselves in all facets of the lives of Canadians Public administrators play a large role in formulating and implementing policies to fulfill their governments service and regulatory responsibilities These are achieved through public bureaucracyBureaucracyan organizational system for achieving government objectives The Meaning of Public Administration Public policyaction or decision made by the government to address a particular problemPublic administrationthe study and practice of the tasks associated with the conduct of administrative state the coordination of individual group efforts to carry out public policy and the use of managerial political and legal theories and processes to fulfill legislative executive and judicial governmental mandates for the provision of regulatory and service functions for the society as a whole or some segments of itThese definitions of public administration are however incomplete in their coverage and very general in their wordingPublic administration refers to a field of practice or occupation and to a field of study disciplinePublic bureaucracy is the system of authority people offices and methodsin other words and organizational formthat government uses to achieve its objectives It is the means by which the practice of public administration is largely carried onWorkable Definition of Public Administration It deals with the public civil or civic service including all matters which impinge on it and all matters on which it impinges Public Administration Verses Private Administration Differences of Public sector and Private SectorPublic sector services the public private sector runs off profit Service vs ProfitPublic sector operates less efficiently than private sectorPublic sector has a greater emphasis on accountabilityThe human resource management system is much more complicated and rigid in government than in private sector organizationsPublic administration conducted in a fishbowl of publicity Two major characteristics of government account in large part for the differences between public and private administration1 The vast scope and complexity of government activities 2 The political environment within which these activities are conducted Environment and Size of Public Administration Environment of Public Administration Public administration is greatly influenced by the broad environment within which it is conducted More important influences of today are globalization technological change political culture the financial position of government and the legacy of past attempts to reform the public service Globalization Globalization turns the whole planet into a single social space producing a sense of simultaneity Identified with its economic dimension which is the movement from a world of distinct economies to a global economy characterized by worldwide markets for investment production distribution and consumption Technological ChangeEgovernmentrefers to government becoming increasingly reliant on electronic devices making governments faster more innovative and more effectivePolitical Culture Refers to the values beliefs and attitudes we hold about political life and surveys reveal that people are less confident in government Higher levels of education and affluence the disappearing performance of governments and shifting constitutional arrangements the Charter of Rights and Freedoms have all put forward in an attempt to explain this shift in attitudes in politicsFinancial Position thIn the final two decades of the 20 century witnessed difficult financial times for many governments Large budget deficits and increasing public debts A number of actions were introduced to restore fiscal health to the treasury They includedThe elimination of programsTrimming of transfers to other governmentsPrivatization of public corporationsReduction in the number of public servants Demography Demographic factors with significant implications for public administrationChanging age composition Baby boomers are starting to retire This will increase the need for health housing and community services Increased participation of women in the labour forceBecoming more multicultural
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