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POLS 2300 (124)
Chapter 1

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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 2300
Tamara Small

POLS 2300: Canadian Government and Politics Week 8 Readings: Canadian Diversity – Chapter 1 Canada’s Expanding Cultural Diversity - In the early 1970’s only 10% of the world’s states could be considered nation states - Nation state: A state in which the population shares a single ethnic culture - Classical liberalism: based on the idea that the state should remain neutral in cultural and religious matters and concentrate on protecting individual rights and freedoms and the life, liberty and property of its citizens – state has minimal role, individuals pursue own beliefs as long as they don’t harm others - Charles Taylor argued that the recognition of group identities and differences is consistent with liberal principles providing the state protects basic rights of citizens - A Look Ahead o Canada has dealt with 2 important sources of cultural diversity:  The existence of more than one nation  Polyethnicity o Canada could be considered a multination state because it involved the English, French and Aboriginal nations, as well as a polyethnic state o Multination state: A state that contains more than one nation o Nation: historical community with its own institutions, occupying a given territory and sharing a language and culture o Polyethnic State: A state that contains many ethnic groups Canada and Nationhood - Anthony Smith distinguishes between two types of nations: ethnic and civic - Ethnic Nation: community with a distinctive culture and history which operates solely for the benefit of that cultural group, members share common ancestry, language, customs and traditions - Civic Nation: community based on a common territory in which its members live and are governed - From Confederation until the first decade of the 20 century the Canadian government heavily promoted immigration from the US, Central and Eastern Europe and Scandinavia to develop an economy and population base th - Canada is home to the 5 largest foreign-born population - The number of visible minority Canadians is growing rapidly - Multilingualism and religious pluralism also contribute to Canada’s social diversity - Canada cannot be described as an ethnic nation, but it does exhibit characteristics of a civic nation The Elusive and Evolving Canadian Identity - Commentators view loyalty to the larger political community as a form of national identity, then we can confirm that a Canadian identity exists - Canadian identity has been linked to symbols like the flag, the anthem, artists, musicians, athletes - Identities: Individual and group-self understandings of their traits and characteristics - Canadians often define themselves in terms of their differences from Americans - Multiple and Overlapping Identities o Globalization theorists have argued that we live in an era in which identities are no longer inherited at birth but can take shape as a result of the deliberate choices that people make in their lives - Changing English and French Canadian Identities o Identities can change over time o Canadian identities have shifted from a model of nationhood based on common ancestry to a more inclusive civic model o After WW2 the economic and military prestige of GB declined and Canada became a major industrial and diplomatic player on the world stage o The move away from the British connection was reinforced by the adoption of a policy of official bilingualism in 1969 and official multiculturalism in 1971 o Official Multiculturalism: policy introduced in 1971 that encouraged individuals to embrace their culture and tradition of their choice while retaining a Canadian citizenship Canada: A Multination and Polyethnic State - Kymlicka described Canada as a multination state build on a federation of 3 distinct national groups: o English, French, Aboriginal o National Minority: A culturally distinct and potentially self governing society that has been incorporated into a larger state o Ethnic Groups: groups of immigrants who left their countries of origin to enter another society but who do not occupy a separate territory in their new homeland o One way to meet the demands of national minorities and ethnic groups is extending legal protections o Another approach is to grant special group-based legal or constitutional rights to national minorities and ethnic groups o Differentiated Citizenship: The granting of a special group-based legal or constitutional rights to national minorities and ethnic groups o Kymlicka identified 3 forms of group-based measures for accommodating national and ethnic differences: o 1) Self Government Rights: grants a national minority some kind of territorial jurisdiction or autonomy over its political and cultural affairs, federalism can effectively provide self- government for a national minority if the national minority is geographically concentrated o 2) Polyethnic Rights: allows ethnic groups and religious minorities to express their cultural distinctiveness without discrimination, rights would include public funding of ethnic cultural practices and the teaching of immigrant languages o 3) Special Representation Rights: The provision of guaranteed representation for particular groups in legislative bodies or other political institutions, Canada doesn’t reserve seats for the representation of national minorities in the H of C and Senate Minority Nationalism and the Canadian State - French ancestry, largely concentrated in Quebec, northern New Brunswick and Ontario - Conquest and the Will to Survive o The Conquest of New France in 1759 marked a tragedy for French speakers and the central event in the history of Canadians of French ancestry o British governors replaced French officials and English speaking merchants from Britain and the American colonies quickly assumed control of Quebec’s economic affairs o French-Canadian clerical and political leaders urged their people to resist assimilation (adopting values of the norms) into the anglaphone culture through a stategy of survival o The French-Canadian nation was to be preserved by resisting the Anglicizing pressures of Protestantism, liberal democracy and commercial occupations, and by remaining fiercely loyal to the Catholic religion, the French language and the traditional mores of rural life o The Quebec Act granted formal protection to the status of the Roman Catholic religion and the system of civil law - Modern Quebec Nationalism and the Role of Language o The election of the provincial Liberals under Jean Lesage ushered in a series of political, institutional and social reforms referred to as the Quiet Revolution o Quiet Revolution: A series of political, institutional and social reforms ushered in under the Quebec Liberal leader Jean Lesage beginning in 1960 o Quiet revolution identified French Canadian nation with the territory of Quebec o It established a ministry of education, nationalized privately owned hydroelectric companies, created Crown corporations such as the Caisse de depot placement - Linguistic Claims o Several Quebec government introduced language policies aimed at ensuring that francophones would not become a linguistic minority in the province o The Official Language Act of 1974 also known as Bill 22 made French the sole official language of Quebec replaced by the Charter of the French Language o The bills main features stated that:  French would be the sole official language in Quebec  Businesses with fifty or more employees must receive a “francization certificate”  Commercial signs and advertisements would be in French only  Children could enroll in English school if one of three conditions were met: 1) the child’s parents had been educated in English in Quebec and the child had already been going to English school 2) the chid’s parents were educated in English outside of Quebec but were living in the province when the law was passed 3) The child was already enrolled in an English school when the law came into effect o In 1988, the Supreme Court of Canada rule that the prohibition of all languages other than French in public signs, posters and commercial advertising violated the right to freedom of expression guaranteed in the Canadian and Quebec Charters of Human Rights and Freedoms o Bill 178 invoked the “notwithstanding” clause of the Canadian Charter o Bill 101’s provisions concerning access to English-language education generated the most opposition from Anglophones and immigrant groups who were upset that they couldn’t send their children to English-language public schools and who were upset worried about the long- term viability of English-language schools in the province o The charter guarantees the right of Canadian citizen to have their children receive primary and secondary school instructions in English, providing they received their primary school education in English in Canada or they have a child who has received or is receiving primary/secondary school instruction in English in Canada - The Canadian State and Language Rights o Canada had dealt with the issue of language claims by embedding the principle of linguistic duality in the country’s constitutions, laws and policies o English and French have equality of status in the federal Parliament and the Quebec National Assembly and in any court of Canada including Quebec o The government followed up on the Commission’s recommendations by passing the Official Languages Act which regulates bilingualism in the federal public service and federally regulated industries in the private sector o Address the issue of francophone under-representation in the public service and to transform the language of the public service, which was mainly English o The OLA gives individual members of the public the rig
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