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POLS 2300 (129)
Chapter 12

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Political Science
POLS 2300
Nanita Mohan

Chapter Summary Chapter 12 The Demographics of language politics • When new France was placed under British control French speaking people outnumbered English speaking 8 to 1 • La revanche des berceaux – the high birth rate that for close to a century enabled French Canada to maintain its numerical strength against English Canada came to an end • Coupled with the fact that the majority of immigrants were picking up English led to a decline in the francophone share of Quebec • With the exception of New Brunswick and Ontario the rest of the country’s francophone population is small • Bilingual Belt – A term coined by Richard joy, it refers to the narrow region running from Moncton, New Brunswick, in the east to Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, in the west, in which is found the vast majority of Canada’s francophone population • Receptive bilinguals – people who are capable of responding to French communications but do not themselves initiate conversations in French, consume French language media, or seek out opportunities to live in their acquired second language • Quebec is has the most bilingual percentage in Canada The Trajectory of Nationalism • When the French were conquered where subordinated to Anglophone minority about one eighth there size. English was the language of new political and commercial elites • Conquest 1759 – the military victory of the British forces led by Wolfe over Montcalm in what was New France, but which subsequently became British territory under the Treaty of Paris of 1763. The conquest has always been a symbol in French Canada, particularly in Quebec, of subjugation to the English community and the loss of communal autonomy • Why did the French not fall into assimilation like Louisiana? Three factors: 1. they granted formal protection to the status of the Roman Catholic religion and the code civil, the basis of civil law in new France 2. unlike in lousiana the French were not swamped by Anglophones and were held together by a very high birth rate 3. the defensive posture of the characteristics of French – Canadian nationalism and the continuing of French traditional values and institutions • Traditional French – Canadian nationalism was guided by the idea of la survivance – survival against the pressures of a dominant culture that was anglicising, Protestant, materialistic, liberal democratic, and business-oriented • Quebec reinvented itself during the 1930’s to 1950’s as less of traditional nationalism was followed and a move from rural to urban lifestyle. During these years professors and students, journalists, union activists, liberal politicians challenged the conservative ideology and opposed the unholy alliance • Unholy alliance – the term that critics sometimes applied to the three pillars of the conservative Quebec establishment during the 1940’s and 1950’s: the Catholic Church, Anglophone capital, and the Union Nationale under the leadership of le Chef, Maurice Dupless • Rattrapage – French for ‘catching up’ this was one of the key goals of the anti-establishment challenge to the conservative ideology and elites that dominated Quebec during the 1940’s and 1950’s. Rattrapage involved nringing Quebec’s society, economy, and government up to the level of development that existed in the rest of Canada, a goal that required a larger and more interventionist provincial government • Cite libre – the intellectual review founded in the 1950’s by such prominent Quebecers as Pierre Trudeau and Gerard Pelletier, which was one of the key centres for opposition to the so-called unholy alliance of the Church, Anglophone capital, and the union nationale under Maurice Duplessis Traditional French Canadian Characteristics • Catholic religion • French language • Remain faithful to its roots and resist the lure of materialistic, English, Protestant pressures • The separation of church and state was ludicrous • The character of French Canada was most secure in Quebec however it was defined by socio-cultural characteristics, not by the territory of Quebec The Quiet Revolution and its legacy Quiet Revolution – the early 1960’s in Quebec when the provincial Liberal government of Jean Lesage reorganized and developed the Quebec state to take control of important institutions such as education and the economy. During the Lesage years (1960-6) the conservative traditional nationalism was swept away by a more aggressive Quebec nationalism that turned to the Quebec state as the chief instrument for the modernization of Quebec society and the advancement of francophone interests • The central elements of the traditi
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