Textbook Notes (368,098)
Canada (161,641)
POLS 2300 (129)
Chapter 3

POLS 2300 Chapter 3 notes.docx

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Political Science
POLS 2300
Nanita Mohan

Chapter 3: The Social and Economic Setting  Canadian Self Image: • Compassion • Tolerance • Prosperity • See ourselves as more compassionate/ tolerant than Americans Values that most Canadians consider to be important: • Material well being • Equality • Quality of life • Independence Material Well-Being nd st • Average real purchasing power of Canadians was 2 highest in the world withAmericans being 1 (for most of the last generation) • Purchasing Power Parities (PPP): measure of average real purchasing power that takes into account both average nominal incomes and what a standardized currency unit can purchase in a country • If PPP’s are used to measure standardized purchasing power Canadians are among the most affluent people in the world • Public problems are influenced by material conditions • More affluent countries can focus on environmental problems more so than social/ economic ones, poorer countries can’t • Employment is an important issue for Canadians • Canada three quarter of workers in service industry (sales, tourism), 14% in manufacturing, 4% in primary industries (farming), 6% in construction • Education/ training lead to higher income and job security • Manufacturing/ high skilled jobs can be moved to other countries • Outsourcing: movement by transnational corporations of jobs and material inputs for production to less developed countries where labour and inputs cost less, ex. work in computer programming/financial service sector has been moved to India • Canada’s job creation rate has been one of the best in developed world Equality • Laws and institutions can perpetuate inequality like in the past • Canadians have the belief that our society is middle class • This belief comes from liberal ideology that as individuals we can prosper in society as we have opportunities that we can take advantage of • Distribution of income is an indicator of how equitable a country is • Distribution of income in Canada is more equal than inAmerica • Poverty and its extent is one indicator on how equitable a country is • Canada’s low income cut offs (LICOS) generally referred to as the poverty line • Poverty Line Limitations: - Relative - All areArbitrary - Measure groups not individual needs • Native Canadians/ women most likely to be poor • Native Canadians: - Employment rate lowest of any ethnic group - Income is two thirds the Canadian avg. - Near half living off reserves below poverty line - Due to discrimination/ low education • Women: - more likely to be poor than men - over 40% single parent families below poverty line - due to more women working part time/ lower income jobs • poorer provinces: N&L, PEI, NB • poorer provinces more dependent on government money • Socioeconomic mobility: ability of individuals, families, groups to move from one social/ economic position to another influencing equality • Open society  high mobility, closed society low mobility • Vertical Mosaic: John Porter, states that Canadian characterized by a vertical mosaic of patterned inequality b/w ethnic and religious groups • Education, income, occupation of parent influences child’s income/ class position • Corporate Elite: people who control dominant corporations and investment firms and are unrepresentative of the gener
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