POLS 1400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-10: Foreign Investment Review Agency, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Investment Canada

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Textbook Terminology
Chapter 1 Introduction to Canadian Government and Politics
Politics Activity related to influencing, making, and implementing collective decisions
Power The ability to affect the behaviour of others particularly by getting them to act in ways that they
would not otherwise have done
State An independent self-governing country whose governing institutions are able to make and enforce
rules that are binding on the people living within a particular territory
Government The set of institutions that have the authority to make executive decisions; present
proposed laws, taxes, and expenditures to the appropriate legislative body; and oversee the
implementation of laws and policies
Authority The right to exercise power
Legitimacy The acceptance by the people that those in positions of authority have the right to govern
Democracy Rule by the people either directly or through the election of representatives
Direct Democracy A form of democracy in which citizens are directly involved in making the
governing decisions
Representative Democracy A form of democracy in which citizens elect representatives to make
governing decisions on their behalf
Liberal Democracy A political system in which the powers of government are limited by law, the
rights of the people to freely engage in political activity are well established, and fair elections are held to
choose those who make governing decisions
Constitutional Government A government that consistently acts in keeping with established
fundamental rules and principles
Welfare State A state in which government ensures that all people have a minimum standard of living
and receive some protection from hardships resulting from unemployment, sickness, disability, and old
age
Social Democracy A perspective that government should play an active role in reducing or eliminating
inequalities, provide a wide range of public services, and ensure that businesses act in the public interest
Mixed Democracy A combination of public and private ownership and control of the economy
Plebiscitary Democracy The use of referendums, initiatives, and recall procedures as an alternative to
what some view as the elite-oriented nature of representative democracy
Referendum A vote by the people on a particular question asked by the government or legislative body
Initiative A proposed new law or changes to an existing law drafted by an individual or group rather
than by a government or legislature; the proposal is put to a vote by the people after enough signatures
have been collected
Recall A procedure that allows citizens to recall their representative and require that a new election be
held, provided sufficient names are obtained on a petition
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Deliberative Democracy A form of democracy in which governing decisions are made based on
discussion by citizens
Chapter 2 The Historical Context
Royal Proclamation, 1763 Established British rule over the former French colonies and placed
“Indians” under the protection of the British Crown
Quebec Act, 1774 An act of the British Parliament that guaranteed that Catholics would be able to
freely practice their religion, the privileges of the Catholic Church would be maintained, and the French
system of civil (private) law would be used alongside British criminal law
Loyalists Americans who remained loyal to the British Crown at the time of the War of Independence;
subsequently, many Loyalists migrated to the British North American colonies
Constitution Law, 1791 Divided Quebec into two separate colonies Upper Canada and Lower
Canada
Durham Report A report of the British governor that recommended the union of Upper and Lower
Canada and the adoption of responsible government
Responsible Government A governing system in which the executive is responsible to an elected,
representative legislative body and must retain its support to remain in office
Act of Union, 1840 United Upper and Lower Canada creating the United Province of Canada
Charlottetown Conference, 1864 A meeting of the leaders of Canada and the Maritimes at which it
was decided to hold further discussions about uniting the British North American colonies
British North America Act, 1867 An act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom establishing the
Dominion of Canada; in 1982, it was renamed the Constitution Act, 1867
Statute of Westminster, 1931 An Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom ending British control
of Canada
Chapter 3 Politics and the Economy
Branch Plant A term that usually refers to a factory set up by an American company to produce and
sell products for the Canadian market similar to the company’s plant in the United States
Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA) A Canadian government agency established in 1973 to
review proposals from foreigners to take over Canadian businesses or to set up new businesses
Investment Canada A Canadian government agency established in 1985 with a mandate to attract
foreign investment
Canada-United States Automotive Agreement, 1965 (“Auto Pact”) – An agreement that eliminated
tariffs between the two countries on new automobiles, trucks, buses, and original vehicle parts, while
providing guarantees about the level of production in Canada
Countervailing Duties Duties imposed on imports of a particular product that have been subsidized by
the exporting country in a way that harms the home producers of that same product
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