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Chapter 9

POLS 1400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Sharia, Canada Health Act, Sandwich Generation

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1400
Nanita Mohan

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Unit 3, Week 7 - Notes
Theoretical Considerations
Cleavages: differences and divisions.
Age, religion, and rural/urban classification are all part of one’s identity.
Urban/Rural Location
- 2011 census: urban 81% of population, rural 19% of population (“urban” being centres of
at least 1000 people and population density over 400 people per square mile).
- 62% of the population lives in Ontario and Quebec, and the Toronto-Montreal-Ottawa triangle
constituted the political and economic core of the country (core-periphery system)
- interior of British Colombia and northern Ontario: examples of regions within a province that
feel isolated from and exploited by their own economic cores (Vancouver and Toronto)
- regional cores are heavily urbanised and termed “census metropolitan areas” by Statistics
- both rural and urban interests feel that they are not getting the attention they deserve from
- major urban centres increasingly ask Ottawa for help in dealing with such issues as poverty,
housing, transportation, immigration, and crime
A brief list of key aspects of rural Canada today:
· Rural Canada is characterized by low-density as opposed to high-density living, with greater
distance is separating people and settlements, and a narrower range of services available to them.
· Rural communities provide transportation links between large urban centers and many of the
recreation areas used by urban Canadians.
· Rural Canada is partly agricultural, by the number of people engaged in agriculture has been
declining for decades.
· The rural agricultural population is no longer primarily defined in terms of family farms; the
number of farms has decreased, the size has increased, and farms are increasingly owned by
· The remaining farm families usually have to supplement their income with off-farm and
nonfarm work such that they now receive only 26.5% of their income from farming activities.
· Rural Canada is also the location of other primary industries: mining, forestry, petroleum,
fishing, and hydroelectricity. Some of these ministries are marked by significant seasonal
unemployment and are heavily reliant on Employment Insurance.
· Government concerned with balancing budgets over the period since 1995 resulted in a
substantial reduction in the number schools, hospitals, post offices, and other government offices
in rural areas and small towns.
· Rural Canada is characterized by an exodus of young people, often leaving for educational
advancement and not returning.
These factors have led to an angry sentiment of rural alienation (a loss of power to the benefit of
urban Canada). Governments, academics, and other “experts” view cities as the economic engines of
the country and pay less attention to rural areas. Rural Canadians do have organized advocacy groups,
including the Canadian Federation of Agriculture, the National Farmers Union, and the more militant
Rural Revolution. Persistent demands are made for agricultural credit and subsidies. General rural
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