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Chapter 10

POLS 1400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Cabinet Of Canada, International Criminal Court, Lloyd Axworthy

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1400
Nanita Mohan

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Chapter 10: Canada’s External Environment: The United States and the World
U.S. Influences in Defence, Foreign, and Border Policies
Canadian Defence Policy
After Confederation, Britain expected Canada to offer military support regardless of whether
the wars were relevant to Canada
Canada’s first military engagement after receiving full autonomy was the Second World War,
which began in 1939
In 1940, Canada and the U.S. signed the Ogdensburg Agreement, which set up the Canada-
United States Permanent Joint Board on Defence to study common defence problems of the
two countries
1941, U.S. entered the war, thus the Hyde Park Declaration extended the planning of
continental defence to cover the production of war materials
In 1949, the U.S., Canada, and most Western European countries formed a new military
alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to contain the Soviet Union
Commitments to NATO required a great increase in Canadian permanent armed forces
In 1950s, a series of radar lines were built across northern Canada to intercept anticipated
Soviet bombers
These arrangements led to North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in
1958, this agreement provided for a join Canada-U.S. air defence system with headquarters in
Colorado, with an American as commander-in-chief and a Canadian as second-in-command
In 1959, a Defence Production Sharing program was established, in which the same year the
Diefenbaker government cancelled the legendary Canadian fighter jet, the Avro Arrow;
however, the advisability of the cancellation is still debated and has resulted in the Canadian
air defence to rely on foreign-produced aircraft
In 1962, the Cuban missile crisis soured relations between President John Kennedy and
Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, a state of affairs compounded by American annoyance at
Canada’s stand with respect to Bomarc missiles; also, as the Canadian Cabinet waited three
days before putting its armed forces in a state of highest alert
As a part of the NORAD Agreement, Canada was intended to be armed with nuclear
warheads, however, the Diefenbaker government was divided on the issue as some did not
want the warheads on Canadian soil, causing a prominent issue between the Canadian-
American relationship in 1962 and 1963
The Diefenbaker government fell apart of this issue, and in the elections the Liberals won,
and Lester B. Pearson became Prime Minister, letting the warheads to be installed, but
eventually removed in 1971
Pierre Trudeau, Pearson’s successor, cut defence spending, and put emphasis on protecting
domestic sovereignty, halved NATO’s contingent in 1969
The most prominent issue had to do with the U.S. request to test a Cruise missile over
Canadian territory, as our terrain had resemblance with that of the Soviet Union despite
considerable popular protest, the Trudeau government agreed as did future governments
The Mulroney government promised to make defence a much higher priority that it was
during the Trudeau years
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