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POLS 1500 Chapter Notes -Egalitarianism, Greenpeace

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1500
Nanita Mohan

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Introduction to Politics 01/12/2014 21:37:00
Politics “Who gets what, when, and how” - Harold Laswell
Government: A set of institutions that make and enforce collective, public Decision: Current group in
Ideology: Body of ideas used in support of an economic, political or social theory.
Public Administration: The way in which governments conduct themselves through bureaucratic
processes; a discipline and a practice
Bureaucracy: Form of organization
Politicians: Elected officials
Bureaucrats: Appointed officials
Democracy: Rule by the people
Direct Democracy: Where people have a direct say in matters of the state
Representative Democracy: Where people appoint representatives to speak for them in matters of
the state.
Autocracy: Government by a single absolute ruler.
Capitalism: Economic system based on the private ownership and the free market
Mixed Economy: Mixture of private and state control
Socialism: Means of production and distribution controlled by government
Communism - all property owned by all in a classless society
Right: Members of a group who hold more conservative views than others
Centrist: Holding or advocating of moderate political views
Left: Members of an organization most favoring change – liberal
Parliamentary system: The executive and the legislature
Head of Government: The Prime Minister
Head of State: Governor General and the Crown.
Responsible Government and Cabinet Solidarity.

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Parliament, The Executive and Bureaucracy 01/12/2014 21:37:00
The three branches of Canadian government consist of the Executive, the Legislature and the
Judicial systems. The government can also be categorized into the political executive and
the administrative.

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In Canada, the term Crown refers to the composite symbols of the institutions of the state.
The Administration refers to government departments and are known to assist the executive branch
in handling policy and decision making processes.
Executive Branch of government consists of the head of state and the head of government.
Legislature is a “multi-member representative body which considers public issues” or in
other words the legislature is the country’s main law making body.
In Canada, parliament is known as bicameral because it consists of an appointed upper house that
includes the senate and the elected lower house that includes the House of Commons.
These two chambers in Canada have equal legislative powers which mean that bills must be
passed in its entirety through both houses.
The House of Commons, also known as the lower house, is a middle sized legislature currently
consisting of 308 members directly elected by the people. Elected using the First Past the
Post Electoral system. They consist of the ruling party, the opposition, back benchers and executive.
The Canadian Senate (or the upper house) consists of 105 senators appointed by the
Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Senate is based on the concept
of equal regional representation and the senate represents the country’s interests as a whole
rather than a party interest.
How a Bill is Passed
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