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Module 20.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Module 20: Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? - Learning o The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours o Classical conditioning  Learn to expect and prepare for significant events o Operant conditioning  Learn to repeat acts that bring rewards  Avoid acts that bring unwanted results o Cognitive learning  Learn new behaviours by watching others  Through language we learn things we have neither experienced or observed - Locke, Hume and Aristotle o We learn by association o Naturally connect events that occur in a sequence - Subtle learned associations o Lower marks when using red pen, support taxes for education if voting in a school - Habitual behaviour learned associations o Repeat given behaviours in a given context o Able to work in a healthy habit to become habitual (2 months) - Associative learning o Learning that certain events occur together  The events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning)  Response and its consequences (operant conditioning) o Needed for survival - Stimulus o Any event or situation that evokes a response - Cognitive learning o The acquisition of mental information  Whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language Classical Conditioning - A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events - Pavlov o Base of many other psychologists (Watson) - Behaviourism o View that psychology  Should be an objective science  Studies behaviour without reference to mental processes  Most research psychologists agree with the prior but not latter Pavlov’s Experiments - Studied the digestive system o First thought salivating was an annoyance “psychic secretions” - Respondent behaviour o Behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus - Neutral stimulus (bell) o A stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning - Unconditioned response (salivation) o An unlearned naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus - Unconditioned stimulus (food) o A stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response - Conditioned response (salivating to bel
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