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Module 32.docx

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PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Module 32: Basic Motivational Concepts and Hunger Motivational Concepts - Motivation o Need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour o Four theories  Instinct theory (evolutionary)  Genetically predisposed behaviours  Drive- reduction theory  Inner pushes and external pulls interact  Arousal theory  Finding right level of stimulation  Hierarchy of needs  Some needs take priority over others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology - Darwin’s theory grew o Classify behaviours as instincts o Didn’t explain human behaviour just named them - Instinct o Complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned  Infant rooting and sucking o Psychologists believe it is both psychological needs and wants - Genes predispose species-typical behaviour Drives and Incentives - Drive reduction theory o The idea that psychological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need o Need (food, water)  drive (hunger, thirst)  drive reducing behaviours (eating, drinking) - Aim is for homeostasis o Tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state, the regulation of any aspect of the body chemistry around a particular level - Can be pulled by incentives o Positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behaviour - When there is a need and incentive feel strongly driven o Starving person smells bread Optimum Arousal - Some motivated behaviours increase arousal - Human motivation seeks optimum levels of arousal o Needs satisfied, still feel driven o Too much can cause stress, not enough, bored A Hierarchy of Motives - Maslow hierarchy of needs o Self transcendence needs  Need to find and identify beyond the self o Self actualization needs  Need to live up to our fullest and unique potential o Esteem needs  Need for self esteem, achievement, competence, and independence, need for recognition and respect from others o Belongingness and love needs  Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, avoid loneliness and separation o Safety needs  Need to feel the world is organized and predictable, to feel safe o Physiological needs  Need to satisfy hunger and thirst - Not universally fixed o Starved themselves in protest… o Gaining and retaining mates or having children Hunger - Ancel and keys o Cut mens food intake in half o Psychological effects  Men became food obsessed  Little else mattered The Physiology of Hunger - Washburn o Swallowed balloon, had stomach contractions everytime he was hungry - Hunger persists without stomach pangs Body Chemistry and the Brain - Automatically regulate caloric intake to prevent energy deficits and maintain stable body weight o Blood sugar glucose  Circulates in blood and provides major source of energy for body tissues, when level is low we feel hunger  Hormone insulin (secreted by pancreas) diminish glucose, converting partly to stored fat - Work done by several neural areas in hypothalamus o Arcuate nucleus  Secretes appetite stimulating and suppressing hormones o Appetite enhancing center stimulated electrically  Well fed animals begin to eat, if damaged even starving wont o Responds to blood chemistry and other incoming information  Monitor levels of appetite hormone, ghrelin  Hormone secreted by empty stomach  Leptin (by fat cells) and PYY (digestive tract)  Decrease hunger  Orexin (hypothalamus)  Triggers hunger - Interaction of hormones and brain activity explain set point o Point at which individuals weight t
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