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Module 1.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Module 1: The Story of Psychology What is Psychology? Psychology Roots - Who are we? What produces our thoughts? Our feelings? Our Actions? And how are we to understand and manage those around us? Psychological Science is Born - Aristotle o Theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality o Suggestions  Meal creates gas that makes us sleepy, heat creates personality - William Wundt o Time lag between hearing a ball and pressing a key  About one tenth of a second after, but two tenths when asked to press at the same time o Seeked to measure atoms of the mind, fasted simple mental process o First psychological laboratory - Two early schools o Structuralism and functionalism - Titchener o Aimed to discover mind’s structure o Engaged people in self reflective introspection (looking inward), training them to report elements of their experiences , proved unreliable - James o Consider evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings o Under influence of Darwin, assumed development happened through adaptation  They serve functions o Exploration of sown to earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment to moment streams of consciousness o Wrote Principles in Psychology textbook  Introduced subject to educated public - Calkins o Admitted to James’ seminar, everyone else dropped out o Denied Harvard PhD although outscored o First female president of APA - Washburn nd o First female PhD and 2 female president of APA o Wrote The Animal Mind Psychological Science Develops - Lewis o There is one thing and only one in the whole universe which we know more about than we could learn from external observation that is ourselves - Wundt and Titchener focused on inner sensations, images and feelings - James engaged in introspective examination of consciousness of emotion - Early pioneers psych was science of mental life - Watson (little Albert) and Skinner (how consequences shape behaviour, rats) psych was scientific study of observable behaviour o Observe and record people’s behaviour o Behaviourists were one of two major forces in psych - Freudian psychology o Other force o Ways unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behaviour - New definitions came out in the 1960s (cognitive revolution) - Humanistic psychologists o Found Freud and behaviourism too limiting o Draw attention to ways current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential and to the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied - Cognitive psych scientifically explores the ways we perceive, process and remember information o Cognitive neuroscience enriched understanding of brain activity underlying mental activity  Understand ourselves and treat disorders - Psychology is defined as science of behaviour and mental processes o Behaviour is anything an organism does  Action we can observe and record o Mental processes are internal, subjective experiences we infer from behaviour  Sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs and feelings Contemporary Psychology - Developed from fields of philosophy and biology o Many have origins in many fields Psychology’s Biggest Question - Are human traits present at birth or do they develop through experience? - Nature-nurture debate o Plato  Ideas are inborn
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