Textbook Notes (367,821)
Canada (161,432)
Psychology (3,330)
PSYC 1000 (740)
Dan Meegan (212)
Chapter

Module 12.docx

7 Pages
43 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Dan Meegan
Semester
Winter

Description
Module 12: Culture, Gender, and Other Environmental Influences How Does Experience Influence Development? - Kenrick o We are not blank slates more like colouring books o Certain lines predisposed and experience fills in the pictures - Formative nurturing begins in prenatal environment o Nutrition, varying toxic elements - Continues outside of the womb o Early experiences foster brain development Experience and Brain Development - Genes dictate brain architecture and experience fills in details o Developing neural connections  Prepares brain for thought and language and other later experiences - Rosenzweig and Krech o Rats in solitary confinement vs. those in a communal enriched environment  Developed heavier thicker brain cortex  Enriched brain cells, more brain activity  Can be used on other animals and children in institutions - Infants that are handled develop faster neurologically and gain weight rapidly o Give preemies massage therapy, allows them to go home sooner - Brain maturation provides with abundance of neural connections and experiences trigger a pruning process o Senses and experience activate and strengthen connections o By puberty massive loss of unemployed connections - Early childhood learning o Excess connections are still on call  But eventually use it or lose it - Neural tissue is always changing and new neurons are born o Perform with increasing sill as our brain incorporates the learning How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents Deserve - Society has been reinforced with “parent blaming” o Praise parents for children’s virtues and blame for vices - Power of parenting is clearest at its extremes - Shared environment from the womb onward typically account for less than 10% of children’s differences Peer Influence - At all ages, but especially during childhood and adolescence, we seek to fit in with our groups and are influenced by them o Preschoolers will eat food they dislike when sitting at a table with peers that do o Children will pick up the accent of friends rather than parents o Teens that start smoking have friends that do  May be result of the selection effect - Peers and parents are complimentary (Gardner) o Parents  Education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, charitableness and ways of interacting with authority figures  Choose neighbourhoods and schools that supply the peers  Look to them when planning future o Peers  Learning cooperation, finding the road to popularity, inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age  Children find them more interesting Cultural Influences - Culture o The enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next - Other animals exhibit the rudiments of culture o Primates have local customs of tool using, grooming and courtship - Mastery of language so humans can have the preservation of innovation - Culture enables the division of labour - Although across cultures there may be differences, the great similarity is the capacity for culture o Transmits the customs and beliefs that enable us to communicate, exchange money for things, to play, to eat and to drive with agreed upon rules Variation Across Cultures - Human nature manifests in human diversity o See adaptability in cultural variations among our beliefs and values - Only when you try to go against a unified culture do you realize it is there - All cultures share some type of basic moral ideas - Each group creates its norms o An understood rule for accepted ad expected behavior o Norms prescribe “proper” behaviour - When cultures collide differing norms befuddle - Culture shock o When we don’t understand what is expected or accepted o Usually has to do with differing pace of life and sense of punctuality Variation Over Time - Since 1960 most western cultures changed at great speed o Cannot be explained by human gene pool Culture and the Self - Individualism o Giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group I identifications  Often people in North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand o Still feel the need to belong  But less focused on group harmony and duty to group, move in and out of them - Collectivist o Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly o Cut off from family, groups and loyal friends loose a sense of who they are o Group identification provide a sense of belonging, set of values, a network of caring individuals and assurance of security - Diversity within cultures o Individualistic countries may contain people that manifest collectivist values - Individualistic cultures prefer unusual names - Difference in language during Olympic games - Costs of Individualism o More loneliness, higher divorce and homicide, and more stress related disease - Voluntary migration; a sparsely populated, challenging environment and a shift to capitalist economy have fostered independence and individualism Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent (identity from individual Interdependent (identity from traits) belonging) Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in, perform uniqueness role What matters Me- personal achievement and Us- group goals and solidarity; social fulfillment; rights and liberties; self responsibilities and relationships; esteem family duty Coping Method Change reality Accommodate to reality Morality Defined by individuals (self-based) Defined by social networks (duty- based) Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; harmony confrontation acceptable valued Attributing Behaviour reflects one’s personality Behaviour reflects social norms and behaviour and attitudes roles Culture and Child Rearing - Child rearing practices reflect cultural values that vary across time and space - Western cultures in the past o Greater priority on obedience, respect and sensitivity to others - Asians and Africans o Live in cultures that value emotional closeness o Sleep wit
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit