Emotions: a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviours, and conscious experience. A function perspective suggests emotions to motivation. Well-suited to help us (cid:373)a(cid:374)age the (cid:862)push(cid:863) of (cid:271)iologi(cid:272)al pro(cid:272)esses a(cid:374)d the (cid:862)pull(cid:863) of so(cid:272)io-cultural forces. We can see what other people are feeling. James-lange theory: our emotions directly follow the response of our bodies. Cannon-bard theory: (simultaneous body response and cognitive experience) our emotions occur si(cid:373)ulta(cid:374)eously with our (cid:271)ody s respo(cid:374)ses. You have an emotional experience that you can identify without the physical reaction. Two-factor theory: the schachter-singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal. Emotion=body plus a label) emotions are the result of the physical response and the cognitive appraisal of this response. Highlights the role of appraisal in labelling consciously experienced emotions. Some emotional reactions (fear, likes and dislikes) develop in a low road through the brain.