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Modules 20, 21, 32 Psychology .docx

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PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Modules 20, 21, 32: Psychology Lecture Four October-01-13 5:57 PM LEARNING 1)Classical conditioning (Pavlov was a major psychologist related to the study of this): Learning to expect and prepare for significant events such as hunger or pain. Learned associations between things that are not naturally associated. -Drooling when food is presented to a dog is an unconditioned response. If a tone is associated with food and the tone begins to trigger drooling, this is a conditioned response. Five major classical conditioning processes: Acquisition: Neutral stimulus is linked to unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus starts to trigger the conditioned response. -In higher order conditioning, a conditioned stimulus can be paired with a new neutral stimulus causing a second conditioned stimulus, therefore meaning a neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus if it becomes associated with a previously conditioned stimulus. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery: Diminished response when conditioned stimulus no longer signals reward. -After waiting however, conditioned response would reappear meaning the extinction was only suppressing the response, not eliminating it Generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimuli. Example: Fudge shaped like dog poo will evoke a disgusted response. Discrimination: Ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimuli and irrelevant stimuli. Example: Reaction to a guard dog as opposed to a guide dog Applications of Pavlov's work: Drug users advised to stay away from places they associate with drug use. Advertising, Taste aversion, anticipatory nausea -Pavlov's work provided basis for Watson's idea that human emotions and behaviours are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses. 2)Operant conditioning (Skinner was main psychologist behind this ): Learning to repeat acts that bring rewards and avoid acts that bring unwanted results . -Law of effect states rewarded behaviour is likely to occur. Successive approximations: Reward of responses that are ever-closer to final desired behaviour can shape behaviours. -Example: Animal trainers use this to have animals do certain tricks. Two kinds of reinforcement (reinforcement is any consequence that strengthens behaviour) Positive reinforcement: Add desirable stimulus like petting a dog when it comes to you Negative reinforcement: Remove an aversive stimulus like taking painkillers to end pain. -Strengthens response by reducing or removing something negative. Types of re-enforcers: Primary and Conditioned Re-enforcers: Primary re-enforcers are unlearned. -Conditioned re-enforcers get power through association with primary re-enforcers. Immediate and Delayed Re-enforcers: Delayed gratification like a paycheck at the end of the month. Reinforcement Schedules: Continuous reinforcement: Learning occurs rapidly, but is not common in every day life. Extinction occurs rapidly as well. Partial reinforcement: Efforts occasionally rewarded. Slower to appear, but more resistant to extinction. 1.Fixed ratio schedules: Reinforcement of behaviour after a set number of responses 2.Variable ratio schedule: Re-enforcers provided after unpredictable number of responses. Example: Slot machine players 3.Fixed interval schedules: Reinforcement for first response after a fixed period of time. 4.Variable interval schedules: Reinforcement for first response after varying time intervals. -Generally, response rates are higher when reinforcement is linked to number of responses (ratio schedule) as opposed to time (interval schedule). -However, responding is more consistent when reinforcement is unpredictable (variable schedule) as opposed to predictable (fixed schedule). Punishment: Decreases frequency of associated behaviour. 3)Cognitive learning: Learning new behaviours through observation and communication even if we have never experienced it ourselves Learned association: Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence which feeds habitual behaviour. -Linking two events that occur close together is associative learning. BASIC MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION AND HUNGER Motivation: Need or desire that energizes a
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