Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Psychology (3,256)
PSYC 1000 (728)

12-culture,gender, and other environmental influences.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

CULTURE, GENDER, AND OTHER ENVRIONMENTAL INFLUENCES How does experience influence development?  Formed by nature and nurture  Formative nurture that conspires with nature begins at conception, with the prenatal environment in the womb, as the embryos receive differing nutrition and varying levels of exposure to toxic agents  Nurture continues outside the womb, where our early experiences foster brain development Experience and Brain development  Genes dictate brain structure but experience develops neural connections and prepares our brain for thought and language and other later experiences  Both nature and nurture shape our synapses  After brain maturation provides us with an abundance of neural connections, our experiences trigger a pruning process  Sights, smells, touches, and tugs activate and strengthen connections, while unused neural pathways weaken  At juncture of nature and nurture is biological reality of early childhood learning  During early childhood-while excess connections are still on call-master such skills as language and grammar. Lacking an exposure to language before adolescent, a person may never be able to master a language  Normal stimulation during early years is critical; the brain’s development does not end at childhood  Our neural tissue is ever changing and new neurons are born How much credit or blame do parents deserve?  In procreation men and women shuffle genes to form a human life, who is then subjected to countless influences beyond their control  Parents feel enormous satisfaction in their children’s successes, and feel guilt or shame over their failures  Power of parenting: abused children become abuser; neglected become neglectful, and the loved ones become self-confident and socially competent  Power of family environment appears in remarkable academic and vocational success  In personality measures, shared environmental influences account for less than 10% of children’s differences Peer Influences  Parents are more important when it comes to education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, charitableness, and ways of interacting with authority figures  Peers are more important for learning cooperation, for finding the road to popularity, for inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age  Parents have power to select a child’s neighbourhood and schools, which gives them the ability to shapes the child’s peer group What is the selection effect, and how might it affect a teen’s decision to join sports teams at schools? Adolescents tend to select out similar others and sort themselves into like-minded groups. This could lead to a teen who is athletic finding other athletic teens and joining school teams together Cultural Influences  Culture is the behaviours, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next  Human culture supports our species’ survival and reproduction by enabling social and economic systems that give us an edge CULTURE, GENDER, AND OTHER ENVRIONMENTAL INFLUENCES  Mastery of language  humans enjoy the preservation of innovation  Culture enables an efficient division of labour  Culture transmits the customs and beliefs that enable us to communicate, to exchange money for things, to play, to eat, and to drive with agreed-upon rules Variation across Culture  We see our adaptability in cultural variations among our beliefs and our values, in how we raise our children and bury our dead, and In what we wear  Cultural windsriding in wind carries us along and we hardly notice it’s there; riding against wind we feel its force  Humans in varied cultures share some basic moral ideas  Cultural groups evolve norms rules for accepted and expected behaviour  When we don’t understand what’s expected or accepted, we may experience culture shock Variation over time  Cultures vary and compete for resources evolve over time  Cannot explain cultural change by the human gene pool, which evolves far too slowly to account for high-speed cultural transformations  Cultures vary, change, and shape lives Culture and the self  Individualism giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications  Strive for personal control and individual achievement  Share human need to belong, but are less focused on group harmony and doing their duty to the group  Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly  Connections define who you are  Group identification provides a sense of belonging, a set of values, a network of caring individuals, an assurance of security  Deeper, more stable attachments to their groups  Valuing communal solidarity means placing a premium on preserving group spirit and ensuring that others never lose face  What people say reflects not only what they feel but what others feel  Most individualistic countries have some people that manifest collectivist values  There is also distinct cultures related to one’s religion, economic status, and region  People in competitive individualistic cultures have more personal freedom because they are less geographically bound to their families, enjoy more privacy and take more pride in personal achievements  Individualism causes more loneliness, higher divorce rates and homicide rates, and more stress related diseases  Fostered individualism in western cultures social history; voluntary migration; a sparsely populated, challenging environment; a shift to capitalist economy  Cultural neuroscience study’s how neurobiology and cultural traits influence each other Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent Interdependent Life Task Discover and express one’s Maintain connection, fit in, perform CULTURE, GENDER, AND OTHER ENVRIONMENTAL INFLUENCES uniqueness role What matters Me-personal achievement and Us-group goals and solidarity; social fulfillment; rights and liberties; self-responsibilities and relationships; esteem family duty Coping method Change reality Accommodates to reality Morality Defined by individuals (self-based) Defined by social networks (duty- based) Relationships Many often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; harmony confrontation acceptable valued Attributing Behaviour reflects one’s personality Behaviour reflects social norms and behaviour and attitudes roles Culture and Child rearing  Child-rearing practices reflect cultural values that vary across time and place  A half a century ago western cultural values places greater priority on obedience, respect and sensitivity to others  Today western families tend children to follow conscience, be true to yourself, think of personal needs and discover your gifts  Children across place and time have thrived under various child-rearing systems Development similarities across groups  Humans share the same life cycle  Differences within a culture, such as those sometimes attributed to race, are often easily explained by an interaction between our biology and our culture  As members of different ethnic and cultural groups, we may differ in surface ways, but as members of one species we seem subject to the same psychological forces  Our languages vary, yet they reflect universal principles of grammar  Our social behaviours vary, yet they reflect pervasive principles of human influence How do individualist and collectivist cultures differ? Individualists give priority to personal goals over group goals and tend to define their ide
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.