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PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

BASIC LEARNING CONCEPTS AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING How Do We Learn?  Learning is the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours  Associative learning is learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning).  Process of learning associations is conditioning and it takes two main forms:  Classical conditioning learn to associate two stimuli ant thus to anticipate events Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response  Operant conditioning learn to associate a response (our behaviour) and its consequence. Thus we learn to repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results  Conditioning is not only form of learning  Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by Watching others, or through language Why are habits, such as having something sweet with that cup of coffee so hard to break? Habits form when we repeat behaviours in a given context and, as a result, learn associations-often without our awareness. For example, we may have eaten a sweet pastry with a cup of coffee often enough to associate the flavour of the coffee with the treat, so that the cup of coffee alone just doesn’t seem right anymore! Classical Conditioning  Ivav Pavlov  John B. Watson & behaviourism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies the behaviour without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1, but not 2. Pavlov’s Experiments  Putting food in a dog’s mouth cause dog to salivate  Dog began to salivate at sight of food  Respondent behaviour: behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus  Isolated dog in room first slid bowl in room later by blowing meat powder in dog’s mouth  Paired neutral stimuli with a tone, that dog did not associate with food, with food in the dog’s mouth BASIC LEARNING CONCEPTS AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING  neutral stimuli: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning  Food in the mouth automatically unconditionally triggers a dog’s salivary reflex  Drooling is an unconditional response: in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus  Food is an unconditioned stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response  Salivation in response to the tone is learned- conditioned response: in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus  The stimulus that used to be neutral is the conditioned stimulus: in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response  Conditioned=learned unconditioned=unlearned NS= neutral stimulus US= unconditioned stimulus UR= unconditioned response CS= conditioned stimulus CR= conditioned response Acquisition  Acquisition: in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In
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