Textbook Notes (368,123)
Canada (161,661)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 1000 (740)

27- thinking.docx

2 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

THINKING Concepts  Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating  One of these activities is forming concepts (a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people)  Concepts simplify thinking  Often form concepts by developing prototypes (a mental image or best example of a category)  Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin). Problem Solving: Strategies and Obstacles  Some problems are solved through trial and error  Other problems we use algorithms (a methodological, logical rule, or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error prone- use of heuristics  Heuristics: a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier than algorithms  Sometimes we puzzle over problems and then pieces fall together in a flash of insight (a sudden realization of a problems solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions)  Before insight moment, the problem solvers frontal lobes (which are involved in focusing attention) were active, and there was a burst of activity in the right temporal lobe, just above the ear  Cognitive tendencies may lead us astray  Confirmation bias: tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence  If a solution to a problem eludes you, you may experience fixation (an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective)  Example of fixation is mental set (a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past)  As a perceptual set predisposes what we perceive; a mental set predisposes how we think; sometimes this can be an obstacle to problem solving Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgements  When making each days judgments and decisions we seldom take the time and effort to reason systematically  We follow our intuition (an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning) The Availability Heuristic  When we need to act quickly, heuristics are mental shortcuts that enable snap judgements  Availability heuristic: estimating th
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.