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PSYC 1000 Module Summaries.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Lisa Giguere
Semester
Fall

Description
thPSYC 1000 Psychology 10 Edition in Modules Summary NotesMODULE ONEWundts student Edward Titchener aimed to discover the minds structure He engaged people in introspection although it was unreliable It waned along with structuralismWilliam James considered functions of our thoughts and feelings He often asked why He assumed that thinking like smelling Was adaptive James is a functionalistIn 1920 two behavioralists Watson and Skinner dismissed introspection and defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behaviorAnother force was Freudian psychology which emphasized how our unconscious thought processemotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behaviorIn 1960 Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow both humanistic psychologists found the above too limiting They drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit growth potential and having our needs for love and acceptance satisfiedToday we define psychology as The science of behavior and mental processes Nature vs Nurture Plato assumed that we inherit character and intelligence and certain ideas are inborn Aristotle countered that nothing in the mind does not come from the external world through the senses In the 1600s John Locke argued that the mind is a blank slate on which experience writes Rene Descartes disagreed believing that the same ideas are innate He gained support from Charles Darwin 2 centuries later Darwin explained diversity through the process of natural selection Evolution has stbecome an important principle for 21 century psychology Nature works on what nature endowsEvery psychological event is simultaneously a biological event Thus depression can be both a brain and a though disorder The tribe of psychology is united by a common quest describing and explaining behavior and the mind underlying it Biological psychologists study the links between brain and mind Developmental psychologists study the changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive psychologist experiment with how we perceive think and solve problems Personality psychologists investigate our persistent traits Social psychologists explore how we view and affect each other Basic Research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge baseApplied Research scientific study that aims to solve practical problemsCounseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living ex School work marriage issuesClinical Psychology Studies assesses and treats people with psychological disordersPositive psychology the scientific study of human functioningCommunity Psychology studies how people interact with their social environments and how institutions affect individuals and groupsMODULE TWOThree phenomena hindsight bias judgmental overconfidence and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events illustrate why we cannot solely rely on intuition and common sense Hindsight Bias I knew it all alongThis phenomenon makes the history of the world seem like a chain of inevitable eventsErrors in our recollections and explanations show why we need psychological researchGood ideas are like good inventions once created they seem obviousOverconfidenceWe tend to think we know more than we actually do We tend to be moreconfident than correctPerceiving Order In Random EventsWe are prone to perceive patterns Random sequences often dont look random Falk et Al 2009The points to remember those 3 phenomena often lead us to overestimate our intuition But scientific evidence inquiry can help us sift reality from illusionMODULE THREETheory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or eventsHypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theoryOperational definition A statement of the procedures used to define research variablesReplication Repeating the essence of a research study usually with the different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and principlesCase Study An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principlesNaturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Does not explain behavior it merely describes it Some naturalistic findingsHumans laugh 30 times more in social situations than solitary situationsLife is fastest paced in Japan and Europe and slower in economically lessdeveloped countriesSurveys can have hindered results due to wording of the survey and sampling bias Correlation CoefficientA statistical index of the relationship between two things from 1 to 1 A correlation coefficient helps us to see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which things relateCorrelations help us predict But association does not prove causation Correlation indicates the possibility of a caseeffect relationship but does not prove such Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effects on some behavior or mental processExperimental group The group that is exposed to the treatment that is to one version of the independent variableControl group The group that is not exposed to the treatment Serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment This group is often given a placeboDoubleblind procedure A procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placeboPlacebo effect Experimental results caused by expectations alone any affect on behavior caused by the administering of an inert substance or condition Independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable that might produce an effect on an experimentDependent variable The outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variableCofounding variable a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an affect on an experimentMODULE FOURIn the early 1800s Franz Gall proposed that phrenology studying bumps on the skull could reveal a persons mental abilities and character traitsPhrenology focused attention on the localization of function the idea that various brain regions have particular functions Within the past century researchers seeking to understand the biology of the mind have discovered that The body is composed of cellsAmong these are nerve cells that conduct electricity and talk to one another by sending chemical messages across a tiny gap that separates themSpecific brain systems serve specific functions though not the functions Gall proposedWe integrate information processed in these different brain systems to construct our experience of sights and sounds meanings and memories pain and passion
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