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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Summary.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Anne Bergen

Chapter 10 Summary Notes – Motivation and Emotion Motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigor of goal-directed behaviour • Psychologists identify factors that move us towards our goals, whether they be obtaining food, a mate, success or even peace and quiet Homeostasis and Drive Theory Homeostasis: the state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain • Requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system • The control centre is like a thermostat which is set at a fixed temperature, or the set point, which the sensors detect changes in temperature at either direction • The control unit then turns of the furnace or air conditioner until the sensors indicate that the set point has been reached and then turns off Drive Theory: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension • Eg. Hunger and thirst Physiology of Hunger Metabolism: the body’s rate of energy (or caloric) utilization and about 2/3 of energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism, the resting continuous metabolic work of body cells There are short term signals that start meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing satiety and long term signal that are based on our body fat. The set point theory is that there in an internal physiological standard around which body weight is regulated. If we overeat or eat too little homeostatic mechanisms will return us close to our original weight. Sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations. When we eat, blood glucose levels rise. When blood glucose levels decrease, the liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose. This rise and drop in glucose in the blood may provide a way as to how the brain regulates hunger. Also the stomach and intestinal distention, when the walls of these organs stretch as food fills them up sends nerve signals to the brain. Hormones play a role too in hunger. CCK(cholecystokinin), is released into the bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach. It stimulates receptors in the brain that decrease hunger. Leptin: a hormone that decreases appetite. As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain where receptor sites on certain neurons detect it. Lateral hypothalamus (LH), is the “hunger on” centre, while the ventrome-dial hypothalamus is the “hunger off” centre. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN): a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite by integrating many different short-term and long-term signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes Psychological Aspects of Hunger • Our beliefs about the caloric content of food and our memory of when and how much we last ate, affect food consumption o Amnesia patients would partially eat another meal 10 to 30 minutes after being given the first • Attitudes, habits and psychological needs also regulate food intake o Eg. Feeling stuffed and still waiting dessert, beliefs such “don’t leave food on your plate” • For women, there’s a trend toward a thinner, leaner unrealistic ideal female body shape • Both men and women overestimate how thin or how bulky they should be towards the opposite sex’s preference o Women viewed themselves heavier than the ideal, while men viewed themselves as close to the ideal • The objectification theory states that Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects which increases shame and anxiety as well as eating disorders Obesity • There are no psychological differences between obese and non-obese people • Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue • Genetic factors account for 40 – 70 % of the variation in body mass among women and men • Obesity rates increased in Canada and USA mostly due to: o Abundance of tasty inexpensive high fat foods o A cultural emphasis on “getting the bets value” o Technological advances that decrease physical activity and encourages and sedentary one • Obese people tend to have higher levels of insulin than people of normal weight which increases the conversion of glucose into fat Sexual Motivation Sexual response cycle: 4 stages • Excitement phase: arousal builds and vasocongestion occurs, as well as muscle tensions • Plateau phase: Respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion and muscle tensions continue to build until orgasm • Orgasm phase: Males ejaculate and in females rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles and the uterus • Resolution phase: physiological arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissues return to their normal condition The hypothalamus plays a role in sexual motivation. They have organizational effects: that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics and activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour. Sexual orientation: refers to one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex. Has 3 dimensions: • Self-identity • Sexual attraction • Actual sexual behaviour • In childhood, homosexual men and women felt that they were somehow different from their same-sex peers and were more likely to engage in gender-non-conforming behaviours o Eg. Homosexual women were considered tomboys during childhood • Three influences that may contribute to sexual orientation: o Genetic  The closer the genetic relatedness, the higher the corcordan
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