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PSYC*1000 Psychology in Modules - Module 3 Summary Notes

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

Module 4Research Strategies How Psychologists AskAnswer QuestionsOctober 12 2013The Scientific MethodTheory explanation using an integrated set of principles that organized observations and predicts behaviors and eventsA good theory provides testable predictions called hypothesesTheories can bias our observations howeverExample if we theorize that people who do not get enough sleep answer questions poorlythen we may be inclined to perceive their comments as less insightful then they may actually beTo counter this psychologists report their findings with precise operational definitions of procedures and concepts that define research variables Example human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures or hunger may be described as hours without eatingThese carefully worded statements allow others to replicate the original observations with different participants materials or circumstancesA theory is useful if1It organizes a range of selfreportsobservations2It implied predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applicationsWe can test a hypothesis usingdescriptive methods which describe behaviors often through case studies surveys or natural observationscorrelational methods which associate different factorsexperimental methods which manipulate factors to discover their effectsDescriptionuse observations to draw conclusions through1Case studies analysis of specific individuals2Naturalistic observation watching and recording the naturalbehavior of multiple individuals3Surveys and Interviews asking questions
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