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PSYC*1000 Psychology in Modules - Module 4 Summary Notes

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PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

Module 4Neurological and Hormonal SystemsOctober 13 2013Biology Behavior and Mindthere are both biological and psychological effects on behaviorPlato correctly located the mind as being in the headFranz Gall proposed phrenologyPhrenology studying bumps on the skull to revel a persons mental abilities and character traitsThis was disproved but we do still use the notion that there is localization of function in the brainBiological perspective concerned with the links between biology and behaviorFrom the biological perspective we have discoveredbody is made up of cellsamong those are nerve cells that conduct electricity and communicate by sending chemical messages across a tiny gap separating themspecific brain systems have specific functionswe integrate information processed in these different brain systems to construct out experience of sight and sounds meanings and memories pain and passionour adaptive brain is wired by experiencesNeural CommunicationsNeuronsNeurons nerve cells are the basic building blocks of the nervous systemConsist of a cell body and branching fibersFibers are called dendrites and they receive information and conduct it towards the cell bodyFrom there axon fibers pass the message through its terminal branches to other neurons or to musclesglandsDendrites tend to be short while axons are much longerAxons that we use often are coated in a myelin sheath which is a layer of fatty tissue that protects them and speeds their impulsesMyelin is laid down until age 25 and in this time neural efficiency judgement and selfcontrol growNeurons transmit messages when stimulated by signals from our senses or when triggered by chemical signals from other neuronsAs a result the neuron first an impulse called the action potential that travels down the axonNeurons generate electricity from chemical events ions are exchangedfluid outside the axons membrane has mostly positively charged ions while inside the membrane has mostly negatively charged ions Resting potential positiveoutsidenegativeinside state
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