PSYC 1000 Chapter Notes -Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning, Reinforcement

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Learning - process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors. Associative learning - learning that certain events occur together; the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning) Stimulus - any event or situation that evokes a response. Operant conditioning - a type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. Law of effect - thorndike"s principle that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, and that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely. Reinforcement - in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behaviour it follows. Shaping - an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour. Positive reinforcement - increasing behaviours by presenting positive reinforcers; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

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