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PSYC*1000 Psychology in Modules - Module 21 Summary Notes

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PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

MODULE 21October 20 2013Skinners ExperimentsLearningprocess of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviorsAssociative Learninglearning that certain events occur together the events may be two stimuli as in classical conditioning or a response and its consequence as in operant conditioningStimulusany event or situation that evokes a responseOperant Conditioninga type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisherLaw of EffectThorndikes principle that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely and that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likelyOperant Chamber Skinners Boxin operant conditioning research a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key peckingReinforcementin operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behaviour it followsShaping BehaviourShapingan operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximationsof the desired behaviourTypes of ReinforcersPositive Reinforcementincreasing behaviours by presenting positive reinforcers any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the responseNegative Reinforcementincreasing behaviours by stoppingreducing negative stimuli any stumulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response this is NOT punishment
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