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Chapter 1.1,2.1,2.4,3.2,3.3,4.1

1000 Chapter 1.1,2.1,2.4,3.2,3.3,4.1: Psych Quiz #1 Prep


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1000
Professor
Paula Barata
Chapter
1.1,2.1,2.4,3.2,3.3,4.1

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Psychology Quiz #1 Prep
Module 1.1 Science of Psychology
-psychology: scientific study o behaviour, thought and and experience and how they can be
affected by physical mental and environmental factors
-scientific method : way of learning about the world through collective observations,
developing theories to explain them and using theories to make predictions.
-Hypothesis: testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured
-Scientific Method > Hypothesis > Test Hypothesis > Confirm or reject hypothesis
-Pseudoscience: Idea presented as science but doesn't actually utilize scientific thinking or
processes ie astrology
-Theory: Explanation for broad range of observations that also generate new hypotheses and
integrates numerous findings
Theories are not same as opinions or beliefs
Not all are equally plausible
Measure of people who believe is doesn’t define a good theory vs bad theory
- Biopsychosocial Model: explaining behaviour through biological, psychological and socio-
cultural factors
-Scientific literacy: ability to understand, analyze and apply scientific info.
-Critical thinking: exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating claims of others
Steps in CT are 1) being curious 2) examining evidence 3)examining assumptions and
biases 4) avoiding emotional thinking 5) tolerating ambiguity 6) considering alternative
viewpoints
Perspective
Focus
Examples
Biological
Genes, brains, anatomy,
evolution
Drug effects
Psychological
Behaviour, perception thought
and experience
Language
Sociocolutural
Relationships, families,
ethnicities
Attraction, conformity

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Module 2.1 Principles of Scientific Research
-objective measurement: measure that is within an allowed margin of errors, is consistent
across observers
-variable: object, concept or event being measured
-operational definitions: statement that describe procedures and specific measures that used
to record observations (ie Scoville units for heat)
-validity: degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures what it claims
-reliability: consistent and stable answers across multiple observations
-generalizability: degree of to which one set of results can be applied to others
-population: research group
-random sample: where everyone has equal chance to be sampled in a pop
-convenience sample: sample of indie that are most readily available
-ecological validity: results in lab can be applied in natural environment
-Hawthorne effect: behaviour change that occurs as a result of being observed
-single-blind study: participant don't know purpose of study or what treatment they are
receiving
-double-blind study: in which nether the examiner nor participant knows treatment for for any
individual
-peer review: papers that are submitted for publication are read and critiqued by experts
-replication: Repeating a study and finding similar outcome
-falsifiable: hypothesis is false enough that it could be proven false
-anecdotal evidence: indiv. story or testimony about an observation or event that that is sued
to make a claim as evidence
-appeal to authority: belief in “expert” w/out supporting data
-Appeal to common sense: claim that appears to be sound but lacks evidence
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