PSYC 1000 Chapter Notes -Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Fetus, Zygote

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Published on 6 Jun 2012
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Course: PSYC*1000 (DE)
Professor: Harvey Marmurek
Schedule: Summer, 2012
Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers
Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615
Module 13: Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn
What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?
Developmental Psychology examines physical cognitive, and social development across life span; focusing
on three major issues:
oNature and Nurture
How does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences (nurture) to
influence our development
oContinuity and Stages
What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What
parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?
Jean Piaget – cognitive development; Lawrence Kohlbert – moral development; Erik
Erikson on psychosocial development = stages exist
Kohlbert: ages 1-8 – preconventional morality; ages 8-14 – conventional morality; ages 14+
postconventional morality
Erikson: basic trust; autonomy; initiative; competence; identity; intimacy; generativity;
integrity
Piaget: Sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operational; formal operational
oStability and Change
Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?
Some of our characteristics, such as temperament, are very stable
Preschoolers who were low in conscientiousness and self-control were more vulnerable to
ill health, substance abuse, arrest, and single parenthood by age 32.
Hyperactive, inattentive 5-year-olds require more teacher effort at age 12
40 years later, talkativeness, impulsiveness, humility persisted after interviewing adults
Life requires both stability and change
What findings in psychology support (1) the stage theory of development and (2) the idea of stability in personality
across the life span? What findings challenge these ideas?
(1) Stage theory is supported by the work of Piaget (cognitive development) Kohlberg (moral development), and
Erikson (psychosocial development), but it is challenged by findings that change is more gradual and less culturally
universal that these theorists supposed. (2) Some traits, such as temperament, do exhibit remarkable stability
across many years. But we do change in other ways, such as in our social attitudes, especially during life’s early
years.
What is the course of prenatal development, and how do teratogens affect the development?
Contraception
oWomen are born with all the immature eggs she will ever have; only 1 in 5000 will mature and be
released; boys will be a non-stop sperm factory 24 hours/day beginning at puberty
Prenatal Development
oFewer than half of all fertilized eggs (zygotes) survive beyond first 2 weeks
o10 days after conception, zygote attaches to uterine wall
oouter cells become the placenta (life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to
embryo)
oSounds/stimuli affect the newborn that they were subjected to in the womb
oTransferring nutrients and oxygen through placenta
oTeratogens can damage embryo or fetus alcohol depresses activity in both the mother and fetus
Central Nervous Systems (CNS)
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Document Summary

Textbook: psychology tenth edition in modules authored by david g. myers. Module 13: developmental issues, prenatal development, and the newborn. What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists: developmental psychology examines physical cognitive, and social development across life span; focusing on three major issues, nature and nurture influence our development, continuity and stages. How does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences (nurture) to. Jean piaget cognitive development; lawrence kohlbert moral development; erik. Kohlbert: ages 1-8 preconventional morality; ages 8-14 conventional morality; ages 14+ postconventional morality. Erikson: basic trust; autonomy; initiative; competence; identity; intimacy; generativity; integrity. Some of our characteristics, such as temperament, are very stable. Preschoolers who were low in conscientiousness and self-control were more vulnerable to ill health, substance abuse, arrest, and single parenthood by age 32. Hyperactive, inattentive 5-year-olds require more teacher effort at age 12. 40 years later, talkativeness, impulsiveness, humility persisted after interviewing adults. Life requires both stability and change: stability and change.

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