Course: PSYC*1000 (DE)
Professor: Harvey Marmurek
Schedule: Summer, 2012
Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers
Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615
Module 13: Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn
What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?
• Developmental Psychology examines physical cognitive, and social development across life span; focusing
on three major issues:
o Nature and Nurture
How does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences (nurture) to
influence our development
o Continuity and Stages
What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What
parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?
Jean Piaget – cognitive development; Lawrence Kohlbert – moral development; Erik
Erikson on psychosocial development = stages exist
Kohlbert: ages 1-8 – preconventional morality; ages 8-14 – conventional morality; ages 14+
Erikson: basic trust; autonomy; initiative; competence; identity; intimacy; generativity;
Piaget: Sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operational; formal operational
o Stability and Change
Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?
Some of our characteristics, such as temperament, are very stable
Preschoolers who were low in conscientiousness and self-control were more vulnerable to
ill health, substance abuse, arrest, and single parenthood by age 32.
Hyperactive, inattentive 5-year-olds require more teacher effort at age 12
40 years later, talkativeness, impulsiveness, humility persisted after interviewing adults
Life requires both stability and change
What findings in psychology support (1) the stage theory of development and (2) the idea of stability in personality
across the life span? What findings challenge these ideas?
(1) Stage theory is supported by the work of Piaget (cognitive development) Kohlberg (moral development), and
Erikson (psychosocial development), but it is challenged by findings that change is more gradual and less culturally
universal that these theorists supposed. (2)