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PSYC1000 - Module 13

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PSYC 1000
Harvey Marmurek

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Course: PSYC*1000 (DE) Professor: Harvey Marmurek Schedule: Summer, 2012 Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615 Module 13: Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists? • Developmental Psychology examines physical cognitive, and social development across life span; focusing on three major issues: o Nature and Nurture  How does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences (nurture) to influence our development o Continuity and Stages  What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?  Jean Piaget – cognitive development; Lawrence Kohlbert – moral development; Erik Erikson on psychosocial development = stages exist  Kohlbert: ages 1-8 – preconventional morality; ages 8-14 – conventional morality; ages 14+ postconventional morality  Erikson: basic trust; autonomy; initiative; competence; identity; intimacy; generativity; integrity  Piaget: Sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operational; formal operational o Stability and Change  Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?  Some of our characteristics, such as temperament, are very stable  Preschoolers who were low in conscientiousness and self-control were more vulnerable to ill health, substance abuse, arrest, and single parenthood by age 32.  Hyperactive, inattentive 5-year-olds require more teacher effort at age 12  40 years later, talkativeness, impulsiveness, humility persisted after interviewing adults  Life requires both stability and change What findings in psychology support (1) the stage theory of development and (2) the idea of stability in personality across the life span? What findings challenge these ideas? (1) Stage theory is supported by the work of Piaget (cognitive development) Kohlberg (moral development), and Erikson (psychosocial development), but it is challenged by findings that change is more gradual and less culturally universal that these theorists supposed. (2)
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