PSYC 1000 Chapter Notes -Snoring, Orexin, Hypothalamus
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Course: PSYC*1000 (DE)
Professor: Harvey Marmurek
Schedule: Summer, 2012
Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers
Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615
Module 08: Sleep and Dreams
How do our biological rhythms influence our daily functioning?
•Thinking is sharpest and memory most accurate when we are at our daily peak in circadian arousal.
•About age 20, become larks; older adults are definitely larks
•Morning types tend to do better in school, to take more initiative, and to be less vulnerable to depression.
What is the biological rhythm of our sleeping and dreaming stages?
•Cycle through four different sleep stages about every 90 minutes
oArmond Aserinsky 1952 – father Eugene
oREM – rapid eye movement sleep
oAlpha waves – wake but relaxed sleep = transition of slowed breathing and irregular brain waves
oNREM-1: brief; images resembling hallucinations – falling or floating – hypnagogic
oNREM-2: 20 minutes; sleep spindles – burst of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity; awakened
without too much difficulty but clearly asleep
oNREM-3: 30 minutes; slow delta waves, hard to awaken
oSpend half your night in NREM-2
oREM – 10 minutes; heart rate rises, breathing becomes rapid and irregular, eyes dart around
oBrain’s motor cortex is active during REM sleep,, but brainstem blocks its messages
oMuscles relaxed – sleep paralysis
oAs night wears on – NREM-3 gets shorter and NREM-2 gets longer
Safety in numbers – why would communal sleeping provide added protection or hose whose safety depends upon
vigilance, such as soldiers?
With each soldier cycling through the sleep states independently, it is very likely that at any given time at least one
of them will be awake or easily wakened in the event of a threat.
Match cognitive experience with the sleep stage:
NREM-1 – fleeting images
NREM-3 – minimal awareness
REM – story-like dream
What are the four sleep stages, and in what order do we normally travel through those stages?
NREM-1, NREM-2, NREM-3, REM *Normally we move through 1 then 2, then 3 then back up through 2 before we
experience REM sleep
How do biology and environment interact in our sleep patterns?
•Sleep patterns are genetically influenced
•Genes that regulate sleep in humans and animals
•Sleep patterns are also culturally influenced
•Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) – grain-of-rice sized cell clusters in hypothalamus – increase brain’s pineal
gland to decrease production of sleep-inducing melatonin
The (suprachiasmatic) nucleus helps monitor the brain’s release of melatonin, which affects our (circadian) rhythm.
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